Vol 20, No 1 (2015)


Diversity of LPS/O-antigens of causative agents of intestinal infections in HIV-infected patients at the stage of secondary diseases

Korogodskaia E.G., Umbetova K.T., Belaia O.F., Mazus A.I., Yudina Y.V., Belaia Y.A., Smetanina S.V., Allenov M.N., Pak S.G.


The goal was to establish the frequency of detection of LPS O antigens of common causative agents of intestinal infections in HIV-infected patients at the stage of secondary diseases. Materials and methods. The study included 48 HIV-infected patients at the stage 4A, 4Б, 4B (25 men and 23 women), without diarrhea, a mean age ofpatients was 36,78 ± 7,8 years. Stool samples (2-4 samples from patient in interval of 5-7 days) were studied for the presence of LPS/O-antigens of S.sonnei, S.flexneri 1-5, 6, Salmonella sgr. B, C1, C2, D, E, Y.pseudotuberculosis I, III, Y.enterocolitica 03, 09, Campylobacter (C.jejuni, C.coli, C.lari) in coagglutination. Results. It was found that HIV-infected patients at the stage of secondary diseases have relatively high presence of LPS/Oantigens of various pathogens - Shigella, Salmonella, Yersinia, in feces (72, 55%). But Campylobacter antigens were relatively rare. In stages 4A, 4Б and 4В overall detection rate of LPS/O-antigens in stool samples did not differ significantly and was 64,3%, 91,3%, 68,6%, respectively (r ≥ 0,05). Conclusion. The high content of LPS/O-antigens may increase the toxic load in patients with HIV infection, including the immune system.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):4-7
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Characterization of the microflora of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections in patients with severe trauma

Orlova O.A., Akimkin V.G.


Rationale The relevance of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections in severe injury patients (SIP) is associated with both features of causative pathogens and the initial severity of the state of patients. Among causative pathogens nosocomial flora is dominant. Purpose - to perform an analysis of the microbiological monitoring of ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections in SIP. The analysis was based on the results of a prospective epidemiological, clinical, and instrumental study of 100 SIP with ventilator-associated respiratory tract infections, stayed in the surgical intensive care unit. The proportion of ventilator-associated respiratory infections in the structure of nosocomial infections in these patients is between 90 - 95%, at that there was revealed the prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia (61%). Ventilator-associated respiratory tract infection most commonly occurs during the first 10 days of mechanical ventilation. The prevailing flora was represented by Gram negative Acinetobacter baumamnnii (40.3 ± 2.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38.4% ± 3.2%). Isolated microorganisms possessed multiple antibiotic resistance, with the greatest extent to aminoglycosides - 69.5%, fluoroquinolones - 40.3%, penicillin - 37.6%; cephalosporins (third generation) - 33.8%. There is noted marked preponderance of microbial associations compared with monocultures 57.1 ± 5.3%.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):8-13
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Varicella in the Primorsky Krai: Clinical and epidemiological determinants of the prevalence

Popov A.F., Kolpakov S.L., Voronok V.M., Simakova A.I.


There was analyzed the incidence of chickenpox from 2002 to 2012 in all administrative-territorial entities of the Primorsky Krai. The prevalence in adults in the Primorsky Krai in 2009-2013 corresponded to 36.7 0/ 0000. Among hospitalized patients there were prevailed cases with moderate grade, shortfebrile period (2,6 ± 1,4 days), the prevalence of subfebrile temperature, the manifestation of a typical exanthema, without complications. For varicella in the Primorsky Krai in the long-term dynamics there is typical inapparent cyclicism, the stable reservoir of infection in the off-season period, the high prevalence in infants under one year and adults. The main regulatory role in the spread of varicella is played by the implementation of the mechanism of transmission.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):14-19
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Comparative analysis of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection of unfed adult ixodid ticks Ixodes pavlovsky Pomerantsev 1946 and Ixodes persulcatus Schulze in the area of sympatria of their natural habitats

Chicherina G.S., Morozova O.V., Panov V.V., Romanenko V.N., Bakhvalov S.A., Bakhvalova V.N.


With the use of the ELISA method to detect an antigen, reverse transcription with quantitative real-time PCR with subtype-specific fluorescent probes, phylogenetic analysis of E and NS1 gene nucleotide sequences, bioassays with suckling mice, hemagglutination and neuroinvasiveness tests there was made a comparison of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection of ixodid ticks Ixodes persulcatus P.Schulze and Ixodes pavlovskyi Pomerantsev 1946 in the area of sympatria of their natural habitats in the Novosibirsk region during growth period of their populations with the replacement ofprevailing species of monodominant type of the ixodid population structure. The ratio of 2 tick species didn’t depend on biotopes ofpine or birch forest but rather on the distance from the Novosibirsk Scientific Center: the lower anthropogenic pressure the smaller I.pavlovskyi proportion. The TBEV rate (including both pathogenic and apathogenic for laboratory mice virus), spectra of the TBEV3 main genetic types, neurovirulence and hemagglutination activity were similarfor both I.persulcatus and I.pavlovskyi. However, the proportion ofpathogenic for laboratory mice virus and the TBEV Far Eastern subtype, as well as viral loads of Siberian and European types for the TBEV from I.pavlovskyi were significantly higher than those from I.persulcatus.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):20-26
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The elaboration of the complex approach to the treatment of infections caused by fungi of the genus Candida

Nesvizhskiy Y.V., Volchkova E.V., Filina Y.S., Bogdanova E.A., Umbetova K.T., Pak S.G.


The purpose of this present literature review is threefold. First, it’s to analyze the main microbiological and environmental characteristics of Candida as well as the implementation of their pathogenic properties in the microbial community within the human body. Second, to focus on the main approaches to the treatment of Candida infections. Finally, this literature review examines the scheme of complex effects on the pathogen including: etiotropic, pathogenetic treatment, the impact of the macroorganism and the microbial community as a whole.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):27-31
pages 27-31 views

Clinical and epidemiological features of the disease caused by the Ebola virus, at the present stage: pathogenetic basis of therapy

Kiselev O.I., Tsybalova L.M., Deeva E.G., Tsvetkov V.V., Golobokov G.S., Tokin I.I., Sologub T.V.


Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever is severe acute infectious diseases accompanied by the development of severe systemic inflammatory response followed by the addition of disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiple organ failure. Since 1976 in Africa regularly observed disease outbreaks among humans caused by different types of Ebola virus. Modern epidemic in West Africa began in Guinea in February 2014 and is still going on, coming out of the country and distributed in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 14, 2014 recorded 18,603 cases of them confirmed EVD 11807, fatal 6915. From July 2014 to currently registered sporadic cases EVD among health care workers caring for patients, as well as among tourists returning from countries affected by the epidemic is already outside of West Africa. Due to the limited use of specific antiviral therapy with special attention to the management ofpatients with EVD should be paid to the intensive and timely pathogenetic therapy. Today, the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality among people from EVD is awareness on the risk factors of infection and the use ofpersonal protective measures.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):32-39
pages 32-39 views

Retrospective data on the study of Ebola virus in Africa

Butenko A.M.


The provided information based on the data of elinical, epidemiological, and serodiagnostic studies indicates both to a possible epidemic manifestation of Hbola fever in the Republic of Guinea for more than 30 years before the 2014 epidemic in West Africa, and the circulation of the Hbola virus in Guinea and other West African countries in the same period, the circulation of the Hbola virus in Zaire at least 4 years before the first recorded outbreak of the infection in 1976.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):39-43
pages 39-43 views

Clinical masks of pleuropulmonary dirofilariasis, a rare clinical presentation of dirofilariasis in Russia: a report of four cases and literature review

Bronshteyn A.M., Malyshev N.A., Fedianina L.V., Frolova A.A., Davydova I.V.


There arc described four cases of infection of the lungs and pleura with Dirofilaria in patients infected in the Moscow region and Moscow, with clinical manifestations of recurrent exudative pleurisy, tumor-like formations in the pleura and the lungs. Non-specific clinical symptoms and clinical simulation of common known diseases render difficult the clinical and instrumental diagnosis of pleuropulmonary dirofilariasis. Currently, the best method of diagnosis and treatment of heartworm lungs and pleura is Videothoracoscopy. There are analyzed factors that contribute to the pleuropulmonary infection with Dirofilaria. There is mentioned the possibility of strain differences between Dirofilaria repens, distributed in various regions of Russia and abroad, and there are discussed the problems of treatment.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):43-49
pages 43-49 views

Experience in the implementation of epidemiological surveillance of West Nile fever in the Volgograd region

Monastyrskiy M.V., Shestopalov N.V., Akimkin V.G., Demina Y.V.


West Nilefever (WNF) is the most important arbovirus infectionfor the Volgograd region. The observed decrease in the WNF incidence from 2001 to 2006, in 2008 and2009, the reducing the number ofsevere forms ofdiseases only give evidence ofa temporary regression of the epidemic process in the territory of the Volgograd region. In the territory of the Volgograd region there are prerequisites and harbingers of the complication of epidemiological situation on West Nile fever. The aim of the performed in the Volgograd region epidemiological surveillance for WNF is to provide the information necessary and sufficient for the analysis of the epidemiological situation, as well as to determine the direction of policy and activities in public health and in making management decisions.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):49-55
pages 49-55 views

Unusual case of lethal tick-borne encephalitis in patient vaccinated with vaccines produced from different viruses strains (the Chelyabinsk Region)

Pogodina V.V., Luchinina S.V., Stepanova O.N., Stenko E.A., Gorfinkel A.N., Karmysheva V.Y., Gerasimov S.G., Levina L.S., Chirkova G.G., Karan L.S., Kolyasnikova N.M., Malenko G.V., Kolesnikova L.I.


Lethal cases of tick-borne encephalitis in previously vaccinated patients have not been described. Modern inactivated vaccines against Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) are high effective. The TBE cases, preference unfocal forms, are developed in persons with incomplete irregular vaccination. First case of lethal TBE after plural vaccination was described in the Kurgan region, the second case - in the Chelyabinsk region. These very rare unusual cases were studied. Being dominant the Siberian subtype of TBE virus is related with lethal TBE cases in the Chelyabinsk region. Unusual TBE case was developed in patient who had been vaccinated 8 limes with vaccines produced from strains of Far-Eastern TBE subtype («Virion», Tomsk, Chumakov institute, Moscow) and European TBE subtype (Encepur; FSME-Immun). Two years after the last vaccination a focal form of TBE was developed with lethal outcome at 9 th day. Specific antibodies IgM and IgG seroconversion were detected. The TBE virus antigen was detected in brain neurons by immunofluorescent test. Destructed neurons and gliocyles were shown by hystological study in cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. The Purkinje cells were destructed. Possible reasons of surmounting vaccinal immunity including a genetic difference of vaccine and infection virus strains are discussed.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(1):56-64
pages 56-64 views

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