Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases

Peer-review medical journal





Launch Year: 1996

The journal covers issues of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases.

Special attention is devoted to clinical analyses of diagnostically difficult cases, analysis of epidemics, new diagnostic and treatment methods, and epidemiological situation in Russia and the rest of the world. The journal publishes official documents issued by the Russian Ministry of Healthcare, Russian Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, societies for infectiologists, epidemiologists, microbiologists and parasitologists as well as information on meetings, symposia, and conferences in Russia and the rest of the world.

The journal is aimed at a wide spectrum of researchers and practicing specialists focusing on diagnosis, treatment and prevention of infectious diseases: epidemiologists, infectiologists, microbiologists, primary care physicians, and family medicine specialists.


  • Russian Science Citation Index (on WoS)
  • CrossRef
  • Google Scholar
  • Ulrich’s International Periodicals Directory
  • WorldCat

Types of accepted articles

  • plain reviews
  • systematic reviews and metaanalysis
  • results of original research (experimental, clinical, epidemiological
  • clinical cases and series of clinical cases
  • short communications
  • letters to the editor


  • regular issues bimonthly, 6 issues per year
  • articles — continuously online (Online First)
  • with NO APC (free of charge for all authors)
  • in Russian and English
  • in hybrid access mode — by subscription or in Open Access with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license  (authors are welcome for Optional Open Access (see more)


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Current Issue

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Vol 28, No 2 (2023)

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Epidemic season 2021–2022: Frequency of co-infection by respiratory viral pathogens
Burtseva E.I., Panova A.D., Kolobukhina L.V., Ignatjeva A.V., Kirillova E.S., Breslav N.V., Trushakova S.V., Mukasheva E.A., Feodoritova E.L., Krasnoslobodtsev K.G., Merkulova L.N., Khlopova I.N., Kisteneva L.B., Kruzhkova I.S., Levochkina Y.S., Krepkaia A.S., Rosatkevich A.G., Komissarov A.B., Yatsishina S.B., Pochtovyi A.A., Kustova D.D., Gushchin V.A., Bazarova M.V., Smetanina S.V., Tsvetkova N.A.

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of various viral respiratory pathogens spreading during the epidemic season 2021–2022 and the frequency of co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza.

AIM: To assess the development of the influenza epidemic and frequency of cases of co-infection with respiratory pathogens in patients with acute respiratory viral infections between 2021 and 2022.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Traditional and hospital epidemiological surveillance methods for acute respiratory viral infections were used.

RESULTS: The epidemic season of 2021–2022 was characterized by the early activity of the influenza A(H3N2) virus and the emergence and rapid spread of the omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. The distribution of different respiratory pathogens during the epidemic season 2021–2022 was clearly traced: SARS-CoV-2 (18.8%) was predominant, followed by influenza viruses (10.6%) and pathogens of other acute respiratory viral infections (0.4–3.7%). With respect to influenza A (H3N2) and B viruses, the heterogeneity of their populations and drift variability in relation to vaccine strains were noted.

DISCUSSION: The frequency of co-infection with various respiratory pathogens was low, i.e., it was no more than 0.1%according to traditional surveillance, and no more than 9.2% in the hospital surveillance. The rationale for updating the composition of influenza vaccines for the countries in the Northern Hemisphere for 2022–2023 season was identified.

CONCLUSION: At present, early diagnosis of influenza is important given the availability of effective drugs with a direct mechanism of action for the prevention and treatment of this pathogen. Timely use of anti-influenza drugs will reduce the risks of a severe course, complications, and death, including co-infection with SARS-CoV-2.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(2):67-77
pages 67-77 views


Molecular bases of the interaction of Mycobacteria tuberculosis complex and anti-tuberculosis drugs: Current state of the problem and its epidemiological significance
Khomyakov Y.N., Zvyagintseva D.D., Khomyakova T.I.

According to the World Health Organization Global Tuberculosis Report, published in 2022, tuberculosis and its drug-resistant forms are on the rise for the first time in recent years. The ability to become immune to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a fundamental feature of the tuberculosis agent. In some cases, tuberculosis develops a transient resistance to antibacterial drugs based on a combination of adaptive biological properties of the mycobacterium without altering the genetic apparatus. This phenomenon is called drug-induced tolerance. Its development is associated with the slowing or altering of bacterial metabolism, increasing the thickness of the cell wall, activation of specific molecular pumps, and removal of medicinal substances from outside the cell. The same and some other mechanisms are involved in the development of another phenomenon — drug resistance, which is associated with inherited changes in the genetic apparatus of mycobacterium. The review is devoted to the molecular bases of the interaction of mycobacterium tuberculosis with anti-tuberculosis drugs and its epidemiological significance.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(2):78-97
pages 78-97 views
Antibacterial microcins, class II: A review
Blinkova L.P., Altshuler M.L., Mironov A.Y.

In medicine, the issue of the use of effective antibacterial substances against drug-resistant microorganisms remains relevant. Most publications on microcins show undoubted prospects for the further development of these pharmacological agents of bacterial origin with multidirectional action (antibacterial, antiviral, antitumor, etc.). One of the features of microcins is their specific inhibitory activity against gram-negative microorganisms (Escherichia, Proteus, Salmonella, Pseudomonas, etc.). This review aimed to briefly summarize current information about one of the groups of microcins (class II) to assess their possible use in practical medicine and scientific research. The review uses sources from the Russian Science Citation Index, Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(2):98-109
pages 98-109 views
Microbial associations in human biotopes as a factor determining the occurrence of polymicrobial infections
Godovalov A.P.

Annually, data are accumulating on the involvement of opportunistic microorganisms in the development of inflammatory diseases in humans, maintaining a chronic inflammatory response and, thus, adapting to the conditions of existence in the biotopes of the human body. This review provides information on the interactions of microorganisms of medical importance, which affects the virulence of both opportunistic pathogens and “classical” pathogens, which probably underlie the chronicity of infection and inflammation. Often, opportunistic pathogenic species cannot fully realize their pathogenic potential, which is observed in numerous cases under conditions of microbial symbiosis. Thus, a revision of approaches to interpreting the results of microbiological methods is necessary, which takes into account the functional activity of the total microflora and the search for individual extrachromosomal genetic elements as a marker of the pathogenicity of microorganisms.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(2):110-117
pages 110-117 views
Structure and mechanism of action of botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: A review
Skryabina A.A., Golenok E.S., Sobkh M.M., Nikiforov V.V.

Botulinum neurotoxins and tetanus neurotoxins are the strongest known toxins that cause neuroparalytic syndromes in botulism and tetanus. This review aimed to systematize scientific data on the structures and mechanism of actions of botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins. Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins are proteins containing functional domains responsible for receptor binding, transmembrane translocation, and proteolytic cleavage of proteins required for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. The main stages of the botulinum neurotoxins and tetanus neurotoxin action include binding to the presynaptic membrane, internalization of bound toxin into the cytosol via endocytosis, translocation of the L-chain into the cytosol via the HN domain, disruption of the interchain disulfide bond with the release of the L-chain to express its catalytic activity (as a metalloprotease) in the cytosol, and selective cleavage of one or more soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor complex proteins with subsequent blockade of neurotransmitter release.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(2):118-127
pages 118-127 views


Subacute brucellosis: A case report
Shakhmardanov M.Z., Nikiforov V.V., Tereshkin N.A., Shakhmardanov S.E., Skryabina A.A., Tomilin Y.N.

Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. The epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the Russian Federation is characterized as unfavorable. Brucellosis remains a problem in regions with developed animal husbandry. The variety of clinical manifestations and the absence of specific symptoms of brucellosis make its diagnosis challenging. The clinical case presented in this paper illustrates the delayed diagnosis of brucellosis in a 10-year-old patient presenting with fever and enlarged lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. The failure in the provision of medical care was attributed to the lack of the alertness of doctors regarding brucellosis, insufficient interpretation of epidemiological history data, and incorrect assessment of the totality of the clinical syndrome of the disease and laboratory parameters. As a result, brucellosis was diagnosed only 6 months after disease onset. Subsequent etiotropic therapy led to the stabilization of the patient’s condition, who was discharged from the hospital with recommendations under the supervision of an infectious disease specialist.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2023;28(2):128-133
pages 128-133 views

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