Vol 21, No 4 (2016)


The state of regulatory legal framework for the classification of biological threats

Suranova T.G., Nikiforov V.V.


Recognition of the globality of biological hazard problems put forward a new task for health professionals - the creation of a system ofprotection based on the continuous comprehensive monitoring of real and potential biological threats. The article is devoted to the classification of biological threats.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):188-195
pages 188-195 views

Effect of the preparation Ingavirin® (imidazolyl ethanamide pentandioic acid) on the interferon status of cells under conditions of viral infection

Aschacher T., Krokhin A., Kuznetsova I., Langle J., Nebolsin V., Egorov A., Bergmann M.


Ingavirin® (imidazolyl ethanamide pentandioic acid) is an original antiviral drug, which is used in Russia for treatment and profilaxis of influenza and other acute viral infections. We confirmed that imidazolyl ethanamide pentandioic acid (IEPA), not being interferon inducer itself, enhances synthesis of both interferon-a/fi receptors (IFNAR) to interferone and cell sensitivity to interferone signalling, which was suppressed by NS1 protein - pathogen factor of influenza virus. IEPA is able to promote antiviral effector proteins PKR and MxA in infected cells, in opposition to interferon system suppression by influenza virus. Theoretical ground of clinical efficacy of Ingavirine® could be confirmed by obtained data of influence to innate immune system during viral infection.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):196-205
pages 196-205 views

The role of genetic factors in the development of liver cirrhosis in viral hepatitis B/D

Khikmatullaeva A.S., Musabaev E.I.


In the article there is presented the influence of genetic variation in the IL28B gene on the risk of the development of liver cirrhosis and possibility offorecasting disease outcomes of HB/DV infected patients. The purpose of the research: Study of the influence of genetic variations in the IL28V gene on the risk of the development of liver cirrhosis and the ability to forecast the disease outcome of HB/DV infected patients. Materials and methods: For the assessment of the impact of IL28Brs8099917 SNP among the observed groups there was determined the genotype of rs8099917 in the IL28B locus TaqMan SNP by means of genotyping of 94 persons, including 72 patients with liver cirrhosis associated with HDV infection. For the comparison, there was taken a group of 22 patients with liver cirrhosis of HBV etiology. Results of executed studies have shown the distribution of genotypes in liver cirrhosis of HBV etiology to be differed considerably from liver cirrhosis of HDV etiology, as for rs8099917 TT genotype (P < 0.001) as well in rs8099917 TG genotype (P < 0.001). Traditional risk factors for the liver cirrhosis (sex, age, viral load, comorbidities) hardly influenced on the outcome of chronic viral hepatitides. Results ofperformed studies have shown the distribution of genotypes with liver cirrhosis induced by HDV to be significantly differed from the liver cirrhosis of HBV etiology, as well of TT genotype as TG genotype. Conclusion: Thus, the genetic analysis is a promising method for the non-invasive diagnosis of risk for development of liver cirrhosis.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):206-210
pages 206-210 views

The problems of clinical and epidemiological basis of diagnosis of rabies in the example of case history observation

Nikiforov V.V., Malov V.A., Trusova N.V.


In the article there is considered the clinical observation with a rare mechanism of human infection with rabies virus from a home decorative dog through the salivation of the mucous membranes and throat while caring for a dying animal. The diagnosis of rabies in the dead dog was established retrospectively after its exhumation and special studies. There is analyzed the dynamics of the clinical picture of rabies in human for the purpose of differential diagnosis and substantiation of clinical diagnosis. There is presented a brief review of the literature.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):211-218
pages 211-218 views

Clinical perspectives of cefditoren pivoxil - new oral third generation cephalosporin

Beloborodov V.B.


The resistance of community flora is growing slowly. Nevertheless, clinical value of actual resistance of the respiratory, skin, soft tissue and urological pathogens is increasing in relation to macrolides, penicillin, quinolones that demands on the introduction of new antibiotics. Cefditoren pivoxil appeared rather recently in the Russian Federation. Results of microbiological and clinical comparative trials showed its high efficiency and safety as an alternative to the applied antibiotics.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):219-225
pages 219-225 views

Mechanisms of Cholera Agent Persistence under Varying Osmolarity Conditions

Zadnova S.P., Plekhanov N.A., Smirnova N.I.


During the lifecycle cholera agent, being human pathogen and natural reservoir inhabitant, is constantly exposed to varying osmolarity environments, induced by different sodium chloride content. However, Vibrio cholerae has created the mechanisms providingfor adaptation to changes of living surroundings. The review covers the data on the impact of NaCl on the survivability of toxigenic V. cholerae strains, and information on mechanisms of adaptation to varying osmolarity. It is demonstrated that at low NaCl contents expression of genes, necessary for cell wall formation and cell growth is elevated; under high NaCl concentration conditions for transcription of genes, encoding transport systems, removing sodium ions, and also responsible for biosynthesis of osmoprotectors, are increased. There is discussed the role of two transcription regulators, CosR and OscR, cooperatively altering gene expression in accordance with particular environmental osmolarity. Further studies into the mechanisms of V. cholerae adaptation to changes of sodium chloride concentration will extend the knowledge about biology and ecology of the pathogen.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):225-233
pages 225-233 views

Organization of the specialized medical care in infectious diseases during the period of preparations and the 2014 XXII Olympic Winter and XI Paralympic Winter Games Staging

Gorodin V.N., Filippov E.F., Burlutskaya A.V., Orobei V.G., Kulichenko A.N., Efremenko D.V., Solonenko T.A., Strihanov S.N., Kuznetsova I.V., Manin E.A., Klindukhov V.P., Grechanaya T.V., Tesheva S.C., Tushina O.V., Antonenko A.D., Efremenko A.A.


The paper presents the results of measures for the organization of specialized medical care in infectious diseases during the preparation and staging of the 2014 XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in the city of Sochi. There is analyzed the complex of measures to ensure the readiness of infectious services in the Krasnodar territory. Special attention in the pre-Olympic period was focused on the training ofmedical personnel with regard to the peculiarities of the work at major international competitions and available epidemiological risks, including those associated with the possibility of skidding especially dangerous and exotic for the Russian Federation infections. There were strengthened the material and technical equipment of the infectious service of the Krasnodar territory and Sochi, updated inventory of medicines, medical supplies in case of emergencies in the field ofpublic health. In the framework of the target program of the Krasnodar territory «Provision of construction of Olympic venues and the development of Sochi city as a mountain climatic and balneological resort» there was built and put into operation a new hospital «Infectious hospital № 2», which became the main base for the treatment of patients with infectious pathology of the resort city of. Sochi. At the time of the Games there was implemented personnel strengthening infectious service Sochi by bringing in specialists from other regions of the Krasnodar territory. The article also presents data on the structure of infectious morbidity in the period of the Games staging. In conclusion, it is noted that due to results of the work including preventive and anti-epidemic measures it was possible to avoid serious complications of sanitary and epidemiological situation. No cases group and flare infectious morbidity during the Games were recorded.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):234-238
pages 234-238 views

Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, emerging issues for the study

Nafeev A.A., Sibaeva E.I., Khaysarova A.N.


In the work results on morbidity rate of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in the Ulyanovsk region for 2003- 2013 129626 are presented with the use of the epidemiological method, for the establishment a causal relationship to the number and infection of rodents. The material presented shows that in addition to well-known classical criteria to exert its influence on the epidemic process in HFRS there are others, in particular an increasingly growing role of anthropogenic factors to be scrutiny in the system of epidemiological surveillance of the infection. We observe that results, taking into account the number of rodents and their infection by Hantavirus, not conclusively found for the last 11 years, are not decisive in the development of the epidemic process of HFRS in Ulyanovsk Region.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2016;21(4):238-240
pages 238-240 views

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