Vol 20, No 6 (2015)


Influenza in the season of 2014-2015 in Russia: epidemiology and properties of viruses

Eropkin M.Y., Karpova L.S., Konovalova N.I., Lobova T.G., Petrova P.A., Eropkina E.M., Shchekanova S.M.


There are presented data of Federal Influenza Center of Russia on morbidity of influenza, intensity, duration, geographical spread of epidemic, recorded lethal outcomes with laboratory-confirmed diagnosis "influenza" in the season of 2014-2015. The epidemic in this season was more intensive in character in comparison to the previous season according to most of the indices. Main etiologic agents were influenza B - 50,6 % of isolated strains, the portion of influenza A(H3N2) viruses accounted for 45 % of isolates and pandemic influenza 2009 virus was revealed only in 4,35 % of studied clinical materials. Incomplete compliance of influenza vaccine for the component A (H3N2), observed in the world in 2015, and especially the further evolution of this group of viruses in the current season demonstrate the importance of the widest possible coverage by epidemiological studies, isolation of the virus in different periods of the epidemic season in different geographical regions and etiological analysis of them with the use of modern methods for the increase of the efficacy of vaccination
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):4-11
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Shiga toxin in patients with HIV infection in the presence of mono- and mixed markers of intestinal infections

Korogodskaia E.G., Umbetova K.T., Belaia O.F., Yudina Y.V., Belaia Y.A., Zuevskaya S.N., Volchkova E.V.


The goal - to study the frequency of detection and levels of Shiga toxin in the feces ofpatients with HIV infection at the stage of secondary diseases in the presence of mono and mixed O-antigens of intestinal bacteria. Materials and methods In 2012-2014 there were examined 123 patients with 4A, 4B, 4C- HIV infection, without diarrhea. The average age ofpatients accounted for 36,8 ± 7,8 years. The control group was consisted of 40 blood donors. In paired stool samples by means of the reaction of coagglutination (RCA) on slides there were tested LPS/O-antigens as markers of causal pathogens of major intestinal infections, Shiga toxin antigen and levels of IgG-immune complexes (IgG-IC in RCA on the plates) in patients with mono and mixed O-antigen in feces. Results There were established the excess of detection rate and titers of antigen Shiga toxin in stool in patients with HIV in comparison with donors, an gain of these indices in mixed infection, and a downward trend of IgG-IC levels in the feces in all cases of HIV-infection if compared with blood donors (p ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Detection of mono- and mixed-O-antigens in the feces of patients with HIV infection, an gain in titers and the frequency of the detection of Shiga toxin antigen, declined IgG-IC levels in feces indicate to pronounced intestinal dysbiosis and disturbed production of specific antibodies in patients with HIV infection at the stage of secondary diseases.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):12-15
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Characteristics of the epidemic process and the leading risk factors for HIV infection in conditions of a large metropolis

Naumenko V.V., Sologub T.V., Tsvetkov V.V., Tsybalova L.M.


The HIV epidemic has been going on for nearly thirty years, it is a heterogeneous, dynamic and highly resistant to countermeasures. The Leningrad Region and the city of St. Petersburg today are referred to the most affected regions of the Russian Federation, as nearly 1% of the population of this city has HIVpositive status. Despite the decline in the HIV infection incidence of the resident population of the Central District, the epidemiological situation for HIV infection remains to be tense, due to the increase in the cumulative number of HIV-infected and AIDS patients, the increase ofthe morbidity rate and mortality in co-infected patients with HIV/tuberculosis, activation of the output of the epidemic in vulnerable groups into the general population. At the same time, a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high risk of late detection of tuberculosis continues to form
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):15-18
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Chronic viral mixt-hepatitis: current clinical and epidemiological aspects

Avdeeva M.G., Gorodin V.N., Kulbuzheva M.I., Blazhnaya L.P., Hasnudinova S.R., Kolodko E.I.


Objective: Improvement of the diagnosis and prognosis of liver disease of viral etiology based on the analysis of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the course and outcome of viral mixt-hepatitis. Materials and methods There are presented results of the retrospective study of 106 patients with chronic viral mixt-hepatitis (study group), which were under the medical observation for a period from two to five years between 2010 and 2014. The comparison group was consisted of 1,913 patients with chronic hepatitis C. Results and discussion The morbidity of chronic viral mixt-hepatitis in the majority of cases is registered among socially active groups of young and middle age persons, more common among males. Frequent risk factors are the artificial factor (55%), the intravenous drug usage (25%), tattooing (19%). Typical concomitant illnesses are diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the endocrine system. Chronic viral mixt-hepatitis is mainly caused by a combination of HCV and HBV, and HCV + HBV + HDV also. HCV replication is noted in 64% of cases, the replication of HBV - in 58%, HDV replication - in 20%. Transformation into cirrhosis in patients with mixt-hepatitis C+B+D was recorded in 25% of cases, in mixt-hepatitis C+B cases - in 7.1%. In the group of C+B+D hepatitis patients, viral replication of HBV and HDV without HCV replication transformation into cirrhosis was seen in 36%. In the case of HDV replication alone, the rate of cirrhosis was 25%, while in cases with isolated HBV replication - 14%. In patients with mixt-infection C+B, the development of cirrhosis was registered within subgroup with simultaneous replication of HBV and HCV viruses in 9% cases. An isolated HCV replication, in general was less often, and led to the transformation into cirrhosis in 6% cases. Conclusions. Simultaneous replication of more than one type of hepatitis virus promotes transformation into cirrhosis, in greater extent, simultaneous replication of HBV + HDV, and monoreplication of HDV virus also. In order to prevent further progression of the pathological process it is recommended the well-timed causal treatment order with account for the predominant virus replication.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):19-25
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Antigen-presenting activity of dendritic cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype

Tsvetkov V.V., Kiselev O.I., Sologub T.V., Slita A.V., Tokin I.I., Anhimova E.S.


Dendritic cells (DC) are the most professional antigen presenting cells, which are the first to recognize the «danger signals» and trigger highly specific immune responses. However, the results ofstudies performed by some foreign and domestic authors, testify to a violation of the functional activity of DCs in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). In order to study the nature of the clinical course of various forms of CHC and for the assessment of the capability of DC to antigen presentation in the 2014-2015 in «Research Institute of Influenza» there was performed a simple comparative clinical study. DC obtained from patients with CHC were found to have high antigen-presenting activity due to the presence on their surface a high level of the expression of MHC class I and II. The maturation of DC is accompanied by a significant increase in the levels of expression of HLA-A, B, C and HLA-DR, irrespective of the degree of liver fibrosis, biochemical activity of alanine aminotransferase or level of viral load.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):26-32
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Identification of markers of opportunistic infections and viral hepatitis in oncohematological patients

Kornienko M.N., Rybalkina T.N., Karazhas N.V., Nikitina G.Y., Kalugina M.Y., Yarosh L.V., Semenenko T.A.


The purpose of the study To estimate the prevalence of markers of herpesvirus infections and pneumocystosis in patients of the hematological department. To identify whether the contamination of hematological patients with hepatitis B and C (HBV, HCV) affects on the activation of opportunistic infections (OIs). Materials and methods There were examined 94 patients of the hematological department, including 48 patients with markers of HBV infection and 46 cases without them. Obtained results Markers of acute OIs (simple herpes virus type 1- 6,4%, EBV - 14,9%, CMV - 6,4%, and Human Herpesvirus 6- 13,8% and 33,0% of pneumocystosis) in hematological patients were determined more frequently than in donors. Comparative analysis of the data revealed the excess of the proportion of cases with markers of acute HHV-6 infection in hematological HBV patients in comparison with a group of hematologic patients without markers of HBV infection (22,9% against 4,4%, p<0,05; χ2=6,8). Conclusion In the performed study there was shown the statistically significant effect of HBV and HCV in the activation of infection caused by HHV-6, whereas in relation to other herpes viruses (HSV, CMV, EBV), and pneumocystosis, this regularity has not been proved. At the same time in patients with hematological malignancies the proportion of the contamination with opportunistic infections was established to be higher than in donors. Opportunistic infections markers were detected almost at the same level in both groups of patients: patients with HBV, HCV markers, and cases without markers.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):33-38
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Clinical picture of influenza caused by a different virus serotypes

Popov A.F., Simakova A.I., Dmitrenko K.A., Zenin I.V.


There was analyzed the medical history of 561 patients with influenza during the period of 2009-2014, Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was diagnosed in 261 cases, accounting for 46.5% of the total number of patients; Influenza A (H1N1) - in 148 cases (26.4%); Influenza A (H3N2) - in 102 cases (18.2%); Influenza B - in 50 cases (8.9%). The clinical picture of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 differed from seasonal influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and B by more severe course, the high rate of complications and mortality.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):39-43
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ELISA diagnostic test systems, serodiagnosis of arboviral infections

Larichev V.F., Kozlova A.A., Saifullin M.A., Khutoretskaia N.V., Shkinev V.M., Butenko A.M.


There are developed and tested by ourselves ELISA kits for serodiagnostics of most endemic to Russia arboviral infections and some imported tropical diseases. Their application allowed in 1999 to set the value WN virus in the etiology of outbreaks ofWN fever in the southern region of Russia, then in Voronezh and Tula regions. From 1999 to 2014, according to the data of Russian Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing in the Russia there were diagnosed 2284 cases of WNfevers and 1725 cases of CCHF. In 2012-2014 specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies to the WN virus were detected in the population of the Southern and Black earth regions of Russia. Data of the examination of residents ’ sera from Tatarstan, Tver, Ryazan, Kaluga, Kursk and Vologda regions were proved to be negative. In 2000 there were revealedfirst cases of CCHF in the Volgograd region, Kalmykia and Dagestan also. The application of ELISA-IgM kits allowed to reveal cases of Sindbis, Batai, Tahyna, Inkoo, sandfly fevers, Uukuniemi and Bhanja. During the period of2009-2014 there were verified 190 imported cases of dengue fever, Chikungunya, WNfever, sandfly fevers, and Japanese encephalitis among persons returning from travel in tropical countries.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):44-46
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Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, new questions for the study

Nafeev A.A., Sibaeva E.I., Khaysarova A.N.


In the work there are presented results of morbidity of Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the population of the Ulyanovsk region for 2003-2013 with the use of the epidemiological method on the establishment of a causal relationship to the number and infection rate of mouse-like rodents. The presented material shows that in besides well-known classical criteria exerting the influence on the epidemic process in HFRS there are others, in particular, an increasingly growing role of anthropogenic factors which are to subjected to the closer study in the system of epidemiological surveillance of the given infection. Observed by ourselves results, taking into account the number of mouse-like rodents and their infection rate with Hantavirus did not admit unambiguously for the last 11 years as determining in the development of the epidemic process of HFRS in the Ulyanovsk Region.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):47-49
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Vladimir Vladimirovich Nikiforov

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Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2015;20(6):50-50
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