Vol 25, No 3 (2020)


Incidence of brucellosis in the Republic of Dagestan in 2019

Shakhmardanov M.Z., Abusueva A.S., Nikiforov V.V., Tomilin Y.N., Burova S.V.


BACKGROUND: Currently, brucellosis continues to pose a serious problem for public health and agriculture in Russia. In 2019, the number of Russian cases of bovine brucellosis increased by 14%, and the number of first-time identified poor points for small cattle brucellosis increased by 52%. Epizootics of the disease are registered mainly in North Caucasus and Southern Federal districts, and the maximum number of newly detected brucellosis in humans is recorded in the Republic of Dagestan (RD).

AIMS: This study aimed to present the characteristics of brucellosis incidence in the RD in 2019 and optimization of preventive measures.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used state information on the incidence of brucellosis, mechanisms, ways, factors of pathogen transmission, and epidemic control activities of the infection in 2019 in the RD, provided by the S.M. Magomedov Republican Center of Infectious Diseases, Prevention and Fight Against AIDS and the Office of the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance of the RD. Statistical and epidemiological research methods were applied.

RESULTS: In 2019, 163 new cases of brucellosis were registered in the RD, which was 52 (+47%) cases more than those in the same period in 2018, and the number of new cases of chronic brucellosis significantly increased (p < 0.05). Individuals aged >41 years were more likely to get sick, patients were predominantly men (n = 135, 82.8%), rural residents accounted for 84.2%, and 56.1% were owners of personal livestock. Brucellosis was registered in 40 territories of the RD. The incidence rate was six times higher in rural areas than in urban areas. In humans, the source of infection was sheep and goats in 58.8% and cattle in 41.2% of cases. The main factor in the persistently high incidence of brucellosis in the RD was unsatisfactory examination and specific prevention among cattle, goats, and sheep.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the epizootological and epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the RD should be considered unstable at present. With respect to the future of the brucellosis situation in the RD, the incidence of brucellosis in animals and humans will depend on the completeness of the implementation of plans for disease prevention.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2020;25(3):112-116
pages 112-116 views


Significance of interspecies and intraspecies interactions of microorganisms as a sub-organism level in the hierarchy of the epidemic process

Yakovlev A.A., Rakov A.V., Pozdeeva E.S.


Currently, the epidemic process is considered a complex multilevel system, which involves the suborganismic (i.e., tissue, cellular, and molecular), organismic, and socio-ecosystem (population). In the human population, many pathogenic microorganisms circulate and may cause disease in humans simultaneously. As a rule, they exist in an associated state – a universal phenomenon for the vast majority of representatives of the microworld. However, possible interrelationships between them and their reflection in the epidemic development process and its `manifestations, as a rule, has not been taken into account. In this study, based on an analysis of publications on the results of our own research by the authors and world literature, at the sub-organism level of the epidemic process there is an active inter- and intraspecies interaction among representatives of different types of microorganisms, realized through integration-competitive mechanisms. This interaction is reflected both at the organism and population levels of the epidemic process. Therefore, when conducting epidemiological studies, an integrative approach is needed to take into account processes happening at a suborganism level. Understanding that microorganisms actively interact with each other will significantly increase our ability to develop new approaches to protect organisms from infections, as well as adequately predict the occurrence and development of an epidemic.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2020;25(3):118-130
pages 118-130 views


The combined course of COVID-19 and influenza: clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment

Poluektova V.B., Burdova E.Y., Filatova A.P., Ladygina E.A., Litvinova E.P., Malov V.A., Popugaev K.A., Volchkova E.V., Petrikov S.S.


The new coronavirus infection severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during the natural epidemic rise of respiratory infections can occur in combination with them. This report aimed to answer the question that arises regarding features of clinical and laboratory diagnostic characteristics of mixed infections. A group of patients was analyzed with combined course of acute coronavirus infection SARS-CoV-2 and influenza using clinical and laboratory instrumental data. Attention is drawn to the fact that combined course of these nosologies, characterized by a significant decrease in blood oxygen saturation with atmospheric air breathing and moderately pronounced changes of the chest organs according to computed tomography results goes together with a moderate course of the disease. Absolute lymphopenia and high C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels may be specific markers that confirm viral etiology of this disease. At the same time, high titer of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 did not always correspond to the full elimination of coronavirus from the body in patients with mixed infection.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2020;25(3):132-138
pages 132-138 views

Trichinosis: outbreak description and brief literature review

Malov V.A., Volchkova E.V., Konnova Y.A., Tsvetkova N.A., Konnov V.V., Pischasov S.V., Malova A.V.


Presented here is a description of trichinosis outbreak associated with bear meat consumption in the form of basturma and chips. The clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory characteristics of the disease course in observed three patients are given. In addition, a review of modern literature on the problem of trichinosis is presented, including issues of etiology, epidemiology, developmental cycle of trichinella, and features of disease clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment. Criteria to be looked at when trichinosis is suspected are also discussed.

Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2020;25(3):140-152
pages 140-152 views

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