Vol 16, No 6 (2011)


Non-tuberculous mycobacteria and mycobacteriosis

Litvinov V.I., Makarova M.V., Krasnova M.A., Litvinov V.I., Makarova M.V., Krasnova M.A.


The data available in the literature and the results of trials conducted at the Moscow City Center for Tuberculosis Control suggest that non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMB) and its induced pathology (mycobacterioses) are a serious health problem today. The paper describes the methods and results of shedding of NTMB, determination of their susceptibility to antibacterial (including anti-tuberculous) agents, and diagnosis of mycobacterioses.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):4-10
pages 4-10 views

Trends in communicable diseases in Mongolia

Kupul Z., Otgonbayar D., Kupul Z., Otgonbayar D.


This paper analyzes the state-of-the-art of infectious diseases in Mongolia over 90 years of public health in Mongolia. The situation related to infectious diseases has undergone substantial changes over 90 years. Smallpox and plague occurred frequently in pre-revolutionary Mongolia. Due to mass vaccination against smallpox, the latter was eradicated in Mongolia in 1940. Systematic health-promotion and prophylactic work against plague has resulted in stable epidemic well-being over the past many past years. The high preventive vaccination coverage rates have been achieved by widely immunizing the population in the country, which could considerably reduce the incidence of infections controlled by specific preventive means. In the past 10 years, the country has not notified diphtheria and whooping cough and the incidence of measles has stabilized at a level of 0.9-1.0 per 100,000 population. At that stage, out of the infectious diseases, viral hepatitis and HIV infection have engaged special attention. Although the incidence of hepatitis B has recently stabilized owing to vaccination; that of hepatitis A has remained high as compared to that in European and North American countries and, in the past 10 years, this rate has been 162.0-391.0 per 100,000. The first case of HIV infection in Mongolia was registered in 1992; as of 2010, the country notified not more than 83 cases, of which 21 (25.3%) cases were registered in 2010, which shows a considerable deterioration in the country's epidemiological situation. The immediate task at that stage is to build on earlier successes and to prevent the emergence and spread of infectious diseases that are absent in Mongolia.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):11-13
pages 11-13 views

Live influenza vaccine for children and adults: transmissibility in in vivo experiments

Dubrovina I.A., Bazhenova E.A., Kiseleva I.V., Berdygulova Z.A., Larionova N.V., Rudenko L.G., Dubrovina I.A., Bazhenova E.A., Kiseleva I.V., Berdygulova Z.A., Larionova N.V., Rudenko L.G.


erson-to-person transmission plays a key role in the spread of seasonal and pandemic strains. To unveil the mechanisms underlying the transmissibility will be able to more effectively control influenza and search for new ways and methods of its prevention. Today vaccination is the most effective method for influenza prophylaxis. Therefore whether live influenza vaccine strains can spread in the population through their further reassortment with circulating viruses is extremely important. This investigation on a model of guinea pigs has studied whether wild-type and cold-adapted influenza viruses can be transmitted to uninfected animals. Influenza H5N1 virus is shown to be a highly transmissible agent to not only contact animals, but also to those which are a considerable distance from them. There is evidence that there is interference of cold-adapted strains with wild-type viruses, which opens new prospects for the use of live influenza vaccine in the pandemic situation and confirms that it is groundless to fear (be concerned) about that mass vaccination of population with live attenuated influenza vaccine may lead to the generation of reassortant mutant viruses with higher pathogenicity level.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):14-18
pages 14-18 views

Study of the levels of soluble forms of differentiation antigens in patients with herpes zoster

Sobchak D.M., Korochkina O.V., Svintsova T.A., Kravchenko G.A., Novikov V.V., Sobchak D.M., Korochkina O.V., Svintsova T.A., Kravchenko G.A., Novikov V.V.


The high incidence of herpesvirus infections is one of the topical problems of modern medicine. Herpesviruses are widely spread in the human population; they are able to affect virtually all organs and systems of the host, by causing latent Differentiation antigens (sCD95, sCD18, sCD50, sHLAI, sCD54) was studied by enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies (Ab) ICO-20 and polyclonal Abs to antigens of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A control group included 60 health donors matched with the study group for age and gender. Age over 60 years, moderate herpes zoster, eruptions on the torso, no comorbidities, and a 1.5-2-fold increase in sHLAI as compared with the reference values were found to be factors that contribute to the uncomplicated course of the disease. The cofactors of postherpetic neuralgia were elderly age (more than 60 years), the severe course of the disease, eruptions on the head, comorbidities, elevated blood urea levels, a 1.5-2-fold decrease in sCD95 and sCD54 as compared to the reference values.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):18-23
pages 18-23 views

Some risk factors and cancer morbidity in the Altai Territory

Lazarev A.F., Ushakov A.A., Lazarev S.A., Luk'yanenko N.Y., Lazarev A.F., Ushakov A.A., Lazarev S.A., Lukyanenko N.Y.


The paper gives the results of epidemiological studies of total cancer morbidity rates in the areas of the Altai Territory in the past 15 years. Areas of high (more than 400), moderate (300-400), and low (less than 300 per 100000 population) have been identified. The level of pollution of foodstuffs, water, soil, and ambient air with heavy metals, partial combustion products, pesticides, radionuclides, and other carcinogens have been estimated. Whether the territory's dwellers have high Epstein-Barr virus titers has been investigated. The natural climatic factors (ultraviolet, rhadon) of the territory and the spread of tobacco use among its population have been estimated. The impact of total carcinogenic burden on cancer morbidity in the Altai Territory was estimated. The study has established that it is necessary to assess the risk for cancer in each administrative entity from its total burden rather than single, though even very potent factor, and, on this basis, to build a system of preventive measures.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):23-28
pages 23-28 views

The isolation and characterization of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains that have caused the outbreak of food infection in the Krasnoyarsk Territory

Govorunova V.A., Astashkin E.I., Baranov A.M., Bannov V.A., Borzenkov V.N., Volodina L.I., Ivanov S.A., Mitsevich E.V., Mitsevich I.P., Myakinina V.P., Pachkunov D.M., Platonov M.E., Svetoch E.A., Yuskevich V.V., Govorunova V.A., Astashkin E.I., Baranov A.M., Bannov V.A., Borzenkov V.N., Volodina L.I., Ivanov S.A., Mitsevich E.V., Mitsevich I.P., Myakinina V.P., Pachkunov D.M., Platonov M.E., Svetoch E.A., Yuskevich V.V.


The researchers of the State Research Center of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology conducted a comprehensive laboratory study of clinical materials and the samples of foodstuffs and organs from wild rodents in order to isolate and identify a pathogen that had caused the outbreak of food infection in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in June-July 2008. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains were isolated from the clinical materials. Biochemical and serological typing, molecular genetic analysis, phagodiagnosis, and drug resistance determination showed that all the clinical isolates were genetically related.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):28-32
pages 28-32 views

Efficiency of treatment with first-line drugs in patients with recurrent tuberculosis of different types of drug resistance on the basis of cohort analysis

Khauadamova G.T., Abildaev T.S., Rakisheva A.S., Myasnikova G.A., Besstrashnova Y.V., Khauadamova G.T., Abildayev T.S., Rakisheva A.S., Myasnikova G.A., Besstrashnova Y.V.


The purpose of the investigation was to study the efficiency of treatment with essential drugs in patients with recurrent tuberculosis of different types of drug resistance on the basis of cohort analysis. A cohort retrospective study was conducted in 94 patients with recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis. The study enrolled more than 18-year-old bacteria-excreting patients admitted to the Therapeutic Unit, National Center for Tuberculosis Problems, in 2006 to 2008. All the patients received category II chemotherapy regimen with first-line drugs. According to the type of drug resistance, the patients were divided into 3 groups: 1) mono-; 2) poly-; 3) multi-resistance. The investigation yielded the following results. In shorter periods (3 months), sputum smear conversion was achieved in patients with mono- (90.0%), poly- (64.7%), and multi- (32.8%) resistance. Overall, sputum smear conversion at 5 months was achieved in 90.0, 88.1, and 74.5% cases, respectively. Positive X-ray changes as decay cavity reduction (70.0%) and closure (30.0%) were most common in the mono-resistance group. On the contrary, X-ray progression was ascertained in poly- (11.7%) and multi- (16.4%) resistant patients. The cohort analysis showed that the best results of treatment were achieved in mono-resistant patients (90.0%). On the contrary, the worst treatment results were recorded in multi-resistant patients (24.6%). All those who died of tuberculosis (8%) had formed a multi-resistance group.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):33-38
pages 33-38 views

Enterovirus type 71: hand, foot, and mouth disease, encephalomyelitis, and acute pulmonary edema in children

Lashkevich V.A., Koroleva G.A., Lukashev A.N., Karmysheva V.Y., Mustafina A.N., Khudyakova L.V., Shumilina E.Y., Lashkevich V.A., Koroleva G.A., Lukashev A.N., Karmysheva V.Y., Mustafina A.N., Khudyakova L.V., Shumilina E.Y.


Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) (Picornaviridae family, Enterovirus genus, HEV-A species) belongs to the most neuropathogenic non-polio human enteroviruses. CNS damages caused by EV71 in children were very similar in their clinical and pathomorphological pattern and frequently indistinguishable from those induced by virulent strains of poliomyelitis virus. During the past 30-40 years, EV71 has caused large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the countries of Europe (Bulgaria, Hungary) and Southeastern Asia (Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, China and others). HFMD (rash on the hand and foot skin and oral mucosa) affects children aged 1 month to 12-14 years, mostly with favorable outcomes in 3-7 days. On 2-5 days of HFMD, ≈ 1% of less than 2-3-year-old children were found to have neurological syndromes, such serous meningitis, poliomyelitis-like signs (pareses and paralyses of the extremities), brainstem encephalitis (tremor, myoclonic jerks, lethargy, bulbar palsy, acute heart and pulmonary failure, neurogenic pulmonary edema, shock, coma, death). In severe cases, mortality rates were as high as 92-94%. Motor, respiratory, and psychoemotional disorders remained long in a small portion of the patients. Pathomorphologic studies revealed damages to the neurons located in the respiratory and cardiovascular centers of the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata, to the nuclei in the n. vagus, and to the anterior nuclei of the spinal cord. The changes in myocardial and lung tissues were minor or absent. The main causes of pulmonary edema were damages to the nerve centers of the brainstem brain and dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. Drugs and vaccines against EV71 infection are currently unavailable. Immediate (during the first days of EV71 infection) hospitalization of children with the earliest prognostic signs (temperature 38.5-39°C within ≥ 3 days, lethargy) of CNS involvement, early intravenous administration of human immunoglobulin, and active cardiovascular therapy (administration of milrinone) are recommended to reduce the incidence of severe and fatal cases of EV71 infections.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):38-47
pages 38-47 views

Epidemiological problems of the prevention of human rabies

Nafeev A.A., Khakimova D.A., Aynutdinova G.M., Abbyazova V.I., Mayorova A.I., Belyaeva M.N., Gafiyatullina Z.N., Nafeyev A.A., Khakimova D.A., Ainutdinova G.M., Abbyazova V.I., Maiorova A.I., Belyaeva M.N., Gafiyatullina Z.M.


The epidemiological method (to establish whether there is a bite or the saliva of rabid subjects (suspected of having rabies) has been found on the damaged skin) is in the foreground while diagnosing rabies in the early stage of prevention of hydrophobia. In the presence of general symptoms (the prodromal period): fever, sleep disorders, anxiety, the epidemiological history plays a decisive role in the clinical diagnosis. Twenty-five cases of rabies were notified in the Ulyanovsk Region throughout the registration period (1952-2010). All cases in recent years (1985-2010) were observed in rural inhabitants; the sources of rabies were red foxes in 3 cases and a fox-bitten dog in 1 case. None of those who died had sought medical advice. In the past 15 years, the last case occurred for the first time in 2010. Rabies virus-specific RNA fragments were isolated in the brain fragment specimens by molecular biological methods (RT-PCR) at the Center of Special Laboratory Diagnosis and Treatment of Specially Dangerous and Exotic Infectious Diseases (Sergiyev Posad-6, Moscow Region).
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):48-50
pages 48-50 views

Calendar of Anniversaries of the History of Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases in 2012

Poddubnyy M.V., Voskresenskaya N.P.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):51-52
pages 51-52 views

The principal epidemiologist of the front (on the occasion of the 120th anniversary of Professor S. V. Viskovsky's birth)

Knopov M.S., Taranukha V.K., Knopov M.S., Taranukha V.K.


The paper describes the life and creative work of Professor Stefan Valerianovich Viskovsky, an outstanding Russian infectious diseases specialist and epidemiologist, a health administrator, a participant of the Great Patriotic War.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):53-56
pages 53-56 views

The Department of Epidemiology, Acad. E. A. Vagner Perm State Medical Academy is 70 years old

Fel'dblyum I.V., Koza N.M., Sergevnin V.I., Isaeva N.V., Feldblyum I.V., Koza N.M., Sergevnin V.I., Isayeva N.V.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):56-59
pages 56-59 views

Alphabetical index of papers published in this journal in 2011

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Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(6):60-63
pages 60-63 views

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