Vol 16, No 1 (2011)


Nosocomial infections: New vistas in their prevention

Pokrovskiy V.I., Akimkin V.G., Briko N.I., Brusina E.B., Zueva L.P., Kovalishena O.V., Stasenko V.L., Tutel'yan A.V., Fel'dblyum I.V., Shkarin V.V., Pokrovsky V.I., Akimkin V.G., Briko N.I., Brusina E.B., Zuyeva L.P., Kovalishena O.V., Stasenko V.L., Tutelyan A.V., Feldblyum I.V., Shkarin V.V.


Nosocomial infections (NIs) are the most important components of problems to assure medical care quality and to create a safe hospital environment. Today there has been a need for revision of the 1999 program document "The nosocomial infections prevention concept" that is determined by the following factors: objective processes of public health care and sanitary epidemiologic service reformation in the country; new research data on the specific features of the epidemiology and epidemic process of NIs in health care facilities (HCFs) of different profile; revaluation of the importance of a biological factor in the formation of health losses in medical personnel; new approaches to organizing and conducting epidemiological surveillance of NIs at the institutional and regional levels; introduction of new medical technologies for the diagnosis and treatment of NIs; development and introduction of new technologies to protect from infections; extensive practical introduction of molecular genetic studies and up-to-date laboratory complexes; considerable changes in the hardware provision of epidemiological diagnosis; realization of many provisions laid down in the early concept: implementation of a mass immunization program; introduction of new indoor air purification technologies, architectural designs in the construction of HCFs, etc. The aim of new concept wording is to define a strategy for the prevention of NIs for the reduction of morbidity, disability, mortality, and economic damage, by developing the theoretical foundations for morbidity control, and to introduce a scientifically sound epidemiological surveillance system and a package of effective organizational, prophylactic, antiepidemic and therapeutic-and-diagnostic measures into practice.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):4-7
pages 4-7 views

Implication of an infectious factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

Bondarenko V.M., Gintsburg A.L., Likhoded V.G., Bondarenko V.M., Gintsburg A.L., Likhoded V.G.


The paper considers the implication of an infectious factor and the interaction of microbial ligand structures with toll-like receptors (TLR) in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipopolysaccharides of gram-negative bacteria can interact with TLR4 and activate endothelial and smooth muscle cells and arterial intimal macrophages, by inducing their conversion to cholesterol ester-saturated foam cells, and atheroma formation. Loss-of-function mutation in TLR4 receptor reduces the risk of atherosclerosis. Other bacterial ligands, peptidoglycan in particular, as well as endogenous ligands of microbial TLR synthesized under the influence of stressogenic factors can be involved in the induction of atherogenesis. The receptor theory according to which the reactions triggered through the interaction of TLR with their exogenous and endogenous ligands underlie the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is formulated.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):7-11
pages 7-11 views

Epizootology of listeriosis in the Republic of Kazakhstan and Aktyubinsk Region

Musabekova A.A., Dmitrovskiy A.M., Musabekov A.A., Kurmangazin M.S., Musabekova I.N., Dmitrovsky A.M., Musabekov A.A., Kurmangazin M.S.


The epizootological situation in listeriosis has been analyzed in the Aktyubinsk Region, Republic of Kazakhstan. About 1% of rodents have been found to be infected with Listeria, which creates a powerful natural reservoir of this infection, with their total number being borne in mind.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):11-15
pages 11-15 views

HIV infection in the penitentiary facilities of the Republic of Tajikistan

Rafiev K.K., Ruziev M.M., Rafiyev K.K., Ruziyev M.M.


The paper analyzes the specific features of the prevalence of HIV infection among the subjects serving a sentence in the penitentiary facilities of the Republic of Tajikistan.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):15-17
pages 15-17 views

Methodological approach to assessing the epidemiological situation from an integrated criterion

Savilov E.D., Alekseeva G.I., Mal'tseva M.V., Astaf'ev V.A., Kravchenko A.F., Burtseva E.I., Savilov E.D., Alekseyeva G.I., Maltseva M.V., Astafyev V.A., Kravchenko A.F., Burtseva E.I.


The paper provides a rationale for the use of the unique integrated criterion for the integrated assessment of an epidemiological situation and/or human health. The above analysis is exemplified by tuberculosis infection in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) over 19 years (1990-2008), by employing four statistical indices: morbidity, sickliness, bacillary capacity, and mortality.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):17-20
pages 17-20 views

Value of preoperative determination of the level of average molecules as a predictor for the development of pyoseptic infections in cardiosurgical patients

Gabrielyan N.I., Savost'yanova O.A., Gorskaya E.M., Poptsov V.N., Gabrielyan N.I., Savostyanova O.A., Gorskaya E.M., Poptsov V.N.


The authors made a retrospective analysis of the preoperative determination of serum average molecule levels (AML) as a marker of endogenous intoxication in 4536 cardiosurgical patients over 8 years (2001 to 2008). The results of the study indicated that postoperative complications, such as multiple organ dysfunction and pyoseptic infections, occurred in patients with higher preoperative AML (above 0.4 units) who formed a risk group. In the risk-group patients, postoperative severity was responsible for overall and infection-related mortality. The preoperative determination of the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and orosomucoid did not turn out to be of practical informative value in predicting the severity of postoperative complications. Thus, the preoperative determination of the level of average molecules can serve as a predictor of the severity of an inhospital period after surgery under extracorporeal circulation.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):20-24
pages 20-24 views

The phenotypic and molecular biological characteristics of Vibrio cholerae El Tor strains isolated from environmental water objects in Rostov-on-Don in 2003-2008

Lomov Y.M., Telesmanich N.R., Kruglikov V.D., Avdeeva E.P., Ezhova M.I., Shalu O.A., Agafonova V.V., Mazrukho A.B., Arkhangel'skaya I.V., Lomov Y.M., Telesmanich N.R., Kruglikov V.D., Avdeyeva E.P., Ezhova M.I., Shalu O.A., Agafonova V.V., Mazrukho A.B., Arkhangelskaya I.V.


The pheno- and genotypic properties of Vibrio cholerae El Tor cultures identified during monitoring for V. cholerae in the aquatic ecosystems of Rostov-on-Don in the period 2003-2008 were studied in the extended range. In addition to known laboratory diagnostic techniques for cholera, the authors used a volume agglomeration test with antilipase diagnosticum, as well as polymerase chain reaction using specific primers to detect 30 nucleotide sequences of the genes associated with V. cholerae pathogenicity. The range of pheno- and genotypic characteristics of study V. cholerae O1 cultures was extended. There was evidence for the volume agglomeration test with a polymerase antilipase agent as a complementary test for toxicogenicity. The Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from the aquatic environment were shown to confer a real and potential risk in the low cholera incidence area of Rostov-on-Don. The findings may be used to improve methodic approaches to monitoring environmental objects for Vibrio cholerae in the optimization of epidemiological surveillance of cholera at the regional level.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):24-28
pages 24-28 views

The production and properties of cholera Inaba-specific monoclonal antibodies

Alekseeva L.P., Kruglikov V.D., Lomov Y.M., Evdokimova V.V., Fateeva O.F., Yagovkin M.E., Alekseyeva L.P., Kruglikov V.D., Lomov Y.M., Evdokimova V.V., Fateyeva O.F., Yagovkin M.E.


Fusion of hyperimmune mouse splenocytes and NSO myeloma cells gave rise to a kit of hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) specific to Vibrio cholerae O1 serovar Inaba. The study of the properties of MAb showed that the latter of hybridomas A5 and E9 belonging to IgG and IgM, respectively, met the diagnostic requirements. The MAb preparations precipitated from hybridoma culture fluids may be used to identify only Vibrio cholerae O1 serovar Inaba in the slide agglutination and indirect immunofluorescence tests and dot immunoassay. The immunoblotting data suggest that Inaba-specific MAbs are directed towards the epitopes located in the polysaccharide chain of the polysaccharide from Vibrio Inaba. The resultant MAbs may be themselves used in serological tests for cholera and employed to design novel more perfect, diagnostic agents.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):28-31
pages 28-31 views

Estimation of the epidemiological importance of and conditions for microbial contamination of vegetable salads as factors for transmission of the pathogens of acute enteric infections under the present conditions

Sergevnin V.I., Ladeyshchikova Y.I., Devyatkov M.Y., Sarmometov E.V., Shitsyna I.V., Luk'yantseva S.A., Sergevnin V.I., Ladeishchikova Y.I., Devyatkov M.Y., Sarmometov E.V., Shitsyna L.V., Lukyantseva S.A.


The surveys of the epidemic foci of acute enteric infections and the bacteriological studies of foodstuffs showed a considerable epidemiological role of vegetable salads in the spread of Sonne and Flexner dysenteries, salmonellosis, rotavirus infection, and enteric infection of unknown etiology. Potential risk factors for microbial contamination of vegetable salads were identified in the private enterprises preparing vegetable salads and delivering them to the sales outlets.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):31-35
pages 31-35 views

The bacterial and fungal microflora of the nail plate in patients with atopic dermatitis

Arzumanyan V.G., Kabaeva T.I., Vartanova N.O., Arzumanyan V.G., Kabayeva T.I., Vartanova N.O.


The microflora of affected nail plates was studied in atopic dermatitis patients with suspected onychomycosis. All the examined nail samples were shown to contain microorganisms inside keratinocytes in a group of 4 adults aged 24-35 years and 20 children aged 0.3-15 years. Two of the 24 subjects were found to have only mycotic elements; 2 had only gram-positive bacteria; the other 20 had mixed microflora. Eighteen subjects were ascertained to have yeast blastospores and 4 had dermatophyte elements. It was shown that there was no correlation between the bacterial and fungal contamination of samples (p = 0.006). Whether it is necessary to design new topical agents to treat concomitant bacterial and fungal lesions of the nail plate is discussed in the paper.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):36-38
pages 36-38 views

The thiol-disulfide antioxidant system in patients with herpesvirus infections

Nagoev B.S., Kambachokova Z.A., Nagoyev B.S., Kambachokova Z.A.


The functional state of the thiol-disulfide antioxidant system was evaluated in 45 patients with recurrent herpesvirus infection during the recurrence and inter-recurrence periods. Impaired free radical oxidation in these patients is one of the leading pathogenetic factors for structural and functional alterations in biomembranes. The study of the blood antioxidant system indicated that the patients with herpesvirus infections showed reductions in -SH groups and thiol-disulfide ratio and an increase in the number of -SS groups, which testifies to the predominance of the oxidant system over the antioxidant one.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):38-40
pages 38-40 views

The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in an endemic region

Mukhetdinova G.A., Fazlyeva R.M., Mustafina V.K., Dzagurova T.K., Mukhetdinova G.A., Fazlyeva R.M., Mustafina V.K., Dzagurova T.K.


Morbidity rates and clinical features of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) have been studied in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The results of a retrospective analysis of 246 medical records and those of a clinical and serological survey of 97 patients with HFRS show that the lung can be involved in HFRS caused by a Puumula serotype.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):41-44
pages 41-44 views

Antiretroviral therapy and its impact on lipid metabolic parameters

Kanestri V.G., Kravchenko A.V., Deulina M.O., Kanestri V.G., Kravchenko A.V., Deulina M.O.


The aim of the investigation was to study the frequency and magnitude of changes in lipid metabolic parameters in the use of various antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) regimens for 72 weeks in HIV-infected patients initiating the therapy for the first time. Lipid metabolic parameters were analyzed in 146 adult HIV-infected patients. Lipid metabolic disturbances were estimated from the variations in body build and the change in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and atherogenicity index (AI), which had been measured before and 24, 48, and 72 weeks after therapy. All the test antiretroviral drugs affect lipid profile just during early treatment. The most common metabolic disturbance was elevated triglycerides when ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors, lopinavir in particular, were administered. However, in this drug group, AI was minimal (1.29) due to the significantly higher concentration of HDL. Non-nucleotide reverse HIV transcriptase generally failed to affect the level of TC, TG, and LDL, but reduced HDL concentrations, which resulted in a pronounced increase in AI (4.4) following 72 weeks of treatment. The unboosted protease inhibitors atazanavir and nelfinavir were the safest agents in terms of metabolic disturbances. None of the patients developed lipodystrophy 72 weeks after therapy. Thus, it is expedient to determine lipid metabolic parameters and body build before start of therapy and at least every 6 months in all HIV-infected patients in order to prevent lipodystrophy and/or cardiovascular diseases.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):44-48
pages 44-48 views

Ecological and epidemiological approaches to surveillance of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

Nafeev A.A., Shemyatikhina G.B., Nafeyev A.A., Shemyatikhina G.B.


The paper characterizes an epidemic process of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the natural foci of this infection, which have a different loimopotential and are located in different types of landscapes. It shows an association of the number of murine rodents and their HFRS infection rates with human morbidity. The size index was the number of the small animals caught per 100 snare-nights. In-depth analysis of some aspects of the epidemic process in HFRS has demonstrated that its higher intensity is observed in the forest and forest-steppe landscapes.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):49-50
pages 49-50 views

Prospects for the study of natural foci of tularemia in the South Federal District

Arutyunov Y.I., Mishan'kin B.N., Pichurina N.L., Arutyunov Y.I., Mishankin B.N., Pichurina N.L.


The paper reviews different types of the natural foci of tularemia in the South Federal District (SFD). It touches upon the aspects calling for further in-depth study to understand the regularities of their functioning. The synchronization of occurrence of tularemia epizootias in different subjects of SFD and in different types of the foci is associated with solar activity. The highest epizootic activity is observed in the minimum and maximum phases of solar activity.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):51-55
pages 51-55 views

Evaluation of the antibacterial action of superlymph on Shigella

Akhmedov D.R., Tagirova Z.G., Amirova D.M., Pashaeva S.A., Akhmedov D.R., Tagirova Z.G., Amirova D.M., Pashayeva S.A.


The antibacterial activity of the preparation Superlymph, a complex of natural cytokines and antimicrobial peptides, was studied on a model of museum and freshly isolated bacterial strains of the genus Shigella in vitro by the disk method. Superlymph was found to have an antibiotic effect on the bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae of the genus Shigella. The use of Superlymph that is designed in the text as a substance at a concentration of 0.5-100 μg/ ml showed no antibiotic effect on Shigella spp. strains. The suppressed growth of the test cultures was noted when the concentration of Superlymph was increased up to 1000 μg/ml.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):56-59
pages 56-59 views

Evaluation of the efficacy of tabletted interferon formulation in therapy for influenza

Bondarenko A.L., Volkova L.V., Savinykh N.A., Savinykh M.V., Bondarenko A.L., Volkova L.V., Savinykh N.A., Savinykh M.V.


Evaluation of the antiviral and immunomodulatory activities of a novel human leukocyte interferon formulation (an oral tablet) in patients with influenza could establish its efficacy. When the drug is used, the duration of intoxication and catarrhal syndromes and the frequency of complications reduce and the interferon status recovers in shorter periods. The findings show it possible to incorporate Interferon tablets 4000 IU into combination therapy for patients with influenza.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):59-63
pages 59-63 views

On scientific specialty passports

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Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(1):64-64
pages 64-64 views

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