Vol 15, No 1 (2010)


The problem of pneumococcal infections in Russia

Ryapis L.A., Briko N.I., Ryapis L.A., Briko N.I.


The paper discusses the specific features of parasitic system functioning in pneumococcal infections and the basic epidemiological features of their morbidity. It analyzes the incidence of invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal infections in Russia. Despite the fact that pneumococcal infections are shown to present a serious medical problem, their official registration has not been made until recently. Rational lines in the improvement of epidemiological and microbiological surveillance of pneumococcal infections are proposed. The efficacy of 23- and 7-valent vaccines that are used for the specific prevention of pneumococcal infections in foreign countries is considered.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):4-8
pages 4-8 views

Epidemiological features of HIV infection in pregnant women and their babies

Sadovnikova V.N., Sadovnikova V.N.


The prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women in 7 subjects of the Russian Federation has exceeded 1%, its epidemic in these regions has gone over to its generalized stage, which suggests its poor prognosis, will induce an increase in HIV infection mortality in the years ahead. The Russian regions have shown substantial differences in the prevalence of HIV infection among the infants born to HIV-infected mothers. In 13 subjects of the country, the rate of perinatal HIV transmission has been 1.6-4-fold greater than the average Russian rate (9.6%); of them 6 subjects had high infant morbidity rates during the virtually complete (82-100%) coverage by three-stage chemoprophylaxis (a mother-infant pair). The low efficiency of prevention, the need to reveal reasons for the established situation and to optimize measured aimed at reducing the risk of perinatal HIV transmission.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):8-13
pages 8-13 views

Analysis of the incidence of urogenital infections in the Volga Federal District

Shevchenko E.A., Shevchenko E.A.


The studies were undertaken to examine the incidence of urogenital infections in the Volga Federal District (VFD) over 14 years. Official state statistical reporting forms Nos. 9 and 34 over 1995-2003 were analyzed. The structure of urogenital infections and the trends in their morbidity were studied in the VFD versus those in the Russian Federation during 14 years. The incidence of sexually transmitted infections remains high in both Russia as a whole and VFD. There is a steady rise in the incidence of viral infections in the VFD and the Russian Federation as well.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):14-16
pages 14-16 views

Is the multi-level epidemiological nosocomial infection surveillance system a current alternative to NCI inevitability?

Kurakin S.E., Kurakin E.S.


The high sociomedical significance of nosocomial infections (NCI) requires the higher efficiency of antiepidemic measures. NCI control depends on timely and qualitatively implemented antiepidemic measures that can be efficacious provided that complex monitoring of the epidemic process is made to take managerial decisions. Evidence is provided for a need to develop and introduce a multi-level epidemiological NCI surveillance system that is a package of effective organizational, disinfectional, and therapeutic-and-prophylactic measures.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):16-20
pages 16-20 views

The epidemiology and prevention of tuberculosis in the penitentiaries of the Oryol Region

Zolotareva L.V., Shakhanina I.L., Zolotykh S.V., Zolotareva L.V., Shakhanina I.L., Zolotykh S.V.


The paper analyzes the basic epidemiological indices calculated on the basis of state and sectoral tuberculosis reporting data and preventive measures implemented in the penitentiaries of the Oryol Regin to reduce tuberculosis morbidity.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):20-24
pages 20-24 views

Pulmonary tuberculosis with multidrug resistance in its pathogen to essential and reserve drugs

Kononets A.S., Khoroshilova N.E., Golubeva L.I., Kononets A.S., Khoroshilova N.E., Golubeva L.I.


The course of destructive pulmonary tuberculosis and the efficiency of its treatment were studied in 249 patients with this condition who excreted Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin in combination with essential and reserve antituberculous drugs (ATD). The investigators identified 2 groups of patients with multidrug resistance (MDR) to a combination of essential ATD (isoniazid and rifampicin with pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin) and extensive drug resistance (EDR) to a combination of essential (isoniazid and rifampicin) and reserve (prothionamide, canamycin, capreomycin, cyclosein, and fluoroquinolones) drugs. The chronic course of the disease with severe clinical manifestations and more common infiltrative-destructive lesions of the lung was more frequently noted in patients with EDR in MBT to a combination of essential and reserve drugs. The chemotherapy using a combination of reserve drugs proved to be effective only in patients with MDR in MBT to a combination of essential drugs while in EDR these regimens were little effective or ineffective.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):24-29
pages 24-29 views

Meningococcal carriage: Riddles and clues

Kostyukova N.N., Bekhalo V.A., Kostyukova N.N., Bekhalo V.A.


The paper reviews the current views of healthy carriage formation, such as colonization of the entry of infection. It presents an update of the genetically heterogeneity of a meningococcal population and differences between the strains isolated from carriers and patients. The process of mucosal colonization and biofilm formation are described. Data on an immune response in bacterial carriage are pooled and it is concluded that carriage gives rise to a systemic immune response that protects from a generalized disease caused by the serogroup that is homologous to strain carriage. However, the occurring local (mucous) immune response is inadequately tense and fails to protect from recolonization. When mass immunization can affect the spread of carriage due to elimination of the powerful infection sources - patients with generalized forms is discussed.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):30-34
pages 30-34 views

Age-related clinical and epidemiological features of meningococcal infection in children and ways of improving therapy

Skripchenko N.V., Lobzin Y.V., Alekseeva L.A., Ivanova M.V., Vil'nits A.A., Karasev V.V., Ivanova G.P., Gorelik E.Y., Pul'man N.F., Kvetnaya A.S., Volkova M.O., Shevchenko K.O., Skripchenko N.V., Lobzin Y.V., Alekseyeva L.A., Ivanova M.V., Vilnits A.A., Karasev V.V., Ivanova G.P., Gorelik Y.Y., Pulman N.F., Kvetnaya A.S., Volkova M.O., Shevchenko K.O.


The paper presents a clinical and laboratory analysis of generalized forms of meningococcal infection (MI) in 90 patients aged 1 month to 18 years. The age-related features of the disease under the present conditions and a relationship of its clinical manifestations to the serogroup of a meningococcus are determined. The implication of endogenous intoxication, proteolysis and a systemic inflammatory reaction in the pathogenesis of MI is established. The expediency of co-administration of antibacterial drugs and systemic enzymes and prolonged infusion therapy for generalized forms of MI is scientifically founded and the efficiency of the proposed therapeutic tactics is proven.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):35-40
pages 35-40 views

Noroviruses as an etiological factor of acute enteric infections in Novosibirsk infants

Bodnev S.A., Maleev V.V., Zhirakovskaya E.V., Yun T.E., Tikunov A.Y., Nikiforova N.A., Korsakova T.G., Klemesheva V.V., Kachko A.V., Podkolzin A.T., Tikunova N.V., Bodnev S.A., Maleyev V.V., Zhirakovskaya Y.V., Yun T.E., Tikunov A.Y., Nikiforova N.A., Korsakova T.G., Klemesheva V.V., Kachko A.V., Podkolzin A.T., Tikunova N.V.


A total of 1007 fecal samples from the infants admitted to the unit of enteric infections, Children's City Clinical Hospital Three, Novosibirsk, were tested for genotypes 1 and 2 noroviruses in January to December 2006. It was ascertained that 12.4% of the samples contained noroviruses, most of the detected viruses being genotype 2 noroviruses (94.4%); noroviruses along with other viral pathogens were found in 7.2% of the samples. There was an age-related association - 70% of the noroviruses were isolated from infants aged 6 to 18 months. There was a morbidity rise in December 2006 when noroviruses were identified in 39% of the samples, which allowed them to hold the lead, by outstripping the traditionally more common rotavirus infection. Twenty norovirus isolates of noroviruses were tested for nucleotide sequence in the 5'-region of the gene encoding the capsid protein. The study isolates were shown to be very close and different in nucleotide sequence by not more than 4.5%.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):40-44
pages 40-44 views

Clinicoinstrumental and laboratory evaluation of myocardial damage in patients with acute brucellosis

Yushchuk N.D., Akhmedova M.D., Magomedova S.A., Vasyuk Y.A., Yushchuk N.D., Akhmedova M.D., Magomedova S.A., Vasyuk Y.A.


The paper presents the results of studying the functional state of the cardiovascular system in 110 patients with acute brucellosis, in 7 of them the course was complicated by the development of clinical myocarditis. The complex study of the cardiovascular system in patients with brucellosis, by using Holter ECG monitoring, echocardiography (EchoCG), and Doppler EchoCG and determining the activity of cardiospecific enzymes (troponin I, MB-fraction creatinine phosphokinase), and inflammation markers (ACT, LDH, C-reactive protein) makes it possible to revealed the development of myocarditis in early periods of the disease, to timely evaluate the course of the disease, and to decide what adequate therapy and rehabilitation are to be chosen.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):45-48
pages 45-48 views

Association of IL1B and IL1RN gene polymorphisms with the predisposition to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and with the specific features of its course

Khunafina D.K., Khabelova T.A., Kutuev O.I., Khunafina D.K., Khabelova T.A., Kutuyev O.I.


-511C > T and 3953C > T polymorphic loci of the IL1B gene and VNTR polymorphism in the second intron of the IL1RN gene were analyzed in 335 patients with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and 300 seronegative donors. As compared with the controls, the patients with HFRS were significantly less frequently found to have IL1RN*I/*II genotype (p = 0.03; OR = 0.69; 95% CI 0.49-0.96) and combinations of I/II-C/T-C/C and I/II-C/ T-C/T (IL1RN*VNTR - IL1B*-511C > T - IL1B*395C > T) genotypes (p = 0.03; OR = 0.58; 95%CI 0.36-0.95 and (p = 0.008; OR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.32-0.87, respectively). IL1B*C/*T genotype at the locus -511C > T of the IL1B gene (p = 0.04; OR = 1.77; 95% CI 1.02-3.09) and combinations of C/T-I/I (IL1B*-511C > T - IL1RN*VNTR) genotypes were predominant in patients with severe HFRS (p = 0.002; OR = 2.44; 95% CI 1.38-4.29). Furthermore, the carriers of IL1B*C/*T genotype at the locus -511C > T of the IL1B gene and combinations of C/T-I/I (IL1B*-511C > T - IL1RN*VNTR) genotypes were at higher risk for infectious-toxic shock (p = 0.03; OR = 2.78; 95% CI 1.10-7.38 and (p = 0.02; OR = 2.67; 95%CI 1.15-6.13, respectively). The likelihood of disseminated intravascular coagulation was higher in individuals with a combination of T/T-C/T genotypes at the polymorphic loci -511C > T, 3953C > T of the IL1B gene (p = 0.009; OR = 6.4; 95% CI 1.45-21.3). The performed study confirms the assumption that the polymorphisms of -511C > T and 3953C > T of the IL1B and VNTR polymorphism of IL1RN gene has impact on predisposition to HFRS and the pattern of its course.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):49-53
pages 49-53 views

Biological diversity of the pathogens of infectious diseases and an epidemic process

Belov A.B., Ogarkov P.I., Belov A.B., Ogarkov P.I.


The general regularities of the existence of pathogens of human infectious diseases in the biosphere and renovation of their antigenic structure at the species and interspecies level are considered from an epidemiological point of view. Microbiological monitoring complemented by molecular biochemical methods for epidemiological surveillance allows one to follow trends in the rearrangement of pathogen populations from the antigenic structure and to differentiate the epidemic process that is activated at the expense of inherent reserves of the causative agents of infections from that caused by outside carriage. This promotes earlier prediction of the complicated epidemiological situation, more effective prevention of actual infections, and health promotion in immunodeficient individuals. The improvement of immunoprophylaxis means, the calendar and schemes of vaccination, and the rationalization of the existing classifications of the pathogens of infections and diseases are discussed.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):53-57
pages 53-57 views

Prevention of acute respiratory viral infections and pneumonias in an organized collective body

Shipitsyn K.S., Ogarkov P.I., Smirnov V.S., Zhogolev S.D., Zhogolev K.D., Shipitsyn K.S., Ogarkov P.I., Smirnov V.S., Zhogolev S.D., Zhogolev K.D.


The double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of cytovir-3 and rimantadine used to prevent acute respiratory diseases (ARD) and pneumonias in an organized collective body. The high epidemiological efficiency of using cytovir-3 for the prevention of ARD and community-acquired pneumonias was established during Pneumo-23 and Grippol vaccination, which substantially exceeded the efficacy of rimantadine.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):57-61
pages 57-61 views

The risk of poor outcomes in pharmacoeconomic analysis and the evaluation of the safety of remaxol in therapy for chronic viral hepatic lesions (according to the materials of multicenter randomized clinical studies)

Sologub T.V., Sukhanov D.S., Petrov A.Y., Kovalenko A.L., Goryacheva L.G., Romantsov M.G., Sologub T.V., Sukhanov D.S., Petrov A.Y., Kovalenko A.L., Goryacheva L.G., Romantsev M.G.


The paper presents the results of a study evaluating the efficacy of the succinate-containing solution remaxol in therapy for chronic hepatitis with cytolysis syndrome. The use of remaxol during basic therapy versus placebo has established to result in a more frequent reduction in the activity of a hepatic process and in normalization of biochemical parameters. With this, the relative risks for poor therapy outcomes significantly reduce. Comparative pharmacoeconomic analysis has revealed that the higher cost of the therapy (as compared with placebo) is warranted due to its efficiency. The side effects of therapy have been monitored and the safety of using remaxol in chronic hepatitis is shown: the incidence of side effects requiring drug discontinuation is 0.3%.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):61-64
pages 61-64 views

Elena Borisovna Brusina (k 50-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya) (sm. na 3-y polose oblozhki)

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Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(1):65-65
pages 65-65 views

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