Generalized tetanus: a case report

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Abstract

Tetanus is a rare disease caused by Clostridium tetani, causing damage to the central nervous system with the development of muscle hypertension and attacks of generalized seizures caused by the action of the pathogenic toxin. Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, the urgency of the problem of tetanus incidence is high because a significant part of the population is not immunized against this disease, and severe manifestations of tetanus can be fatal.

This paper presents a clinical case of traumatic generalized tetanus in an 11-year-old patient. The absence of routine immunization against tetanus and emergency active–passive immunization contributed to disease development. The disease proceeded in a typical form, with the development of muscle spasms, myoclonia, trism, and convulsions. Specific tetanus serum was administered, pathogenetic therapy with anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants was performed, and the patient had clinical recovery and was discharged from the hospital.

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About the authors

Murad Z. Shakhmardanov

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of health of Russia; Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies

Email: mur2025@rambler.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3168-2169
SPIN-code: 3312-4052

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 117997, Ostrovityanova str.1, Moscow; Moscow

Vladimir V. Nikiforov

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of health of Russia; Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies

Email: v.v.nikiforov@gmail.com
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2205-9674
SPIN-code: 9044-5289

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 117997, Ostrovityanova str.1, Moscow; Moscow

Anna A. Skryabina

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of health of Russia

Email: anna.skryabina.85@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2098-222X
SPIN-code: 3692-6818

MD

Russian Federation, 117997, Ostrovityanova str.1, Moscow

Svetlana V. Burova

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of health of Russia

Email: svburova@list.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7664-7685
SPIN-code: 9165-2625

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor

Russian Federation, 117997, Ostrovityanova str.1, Moscow

Yuri N. Tomilin

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of health of Russia

Email: papa220471@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2767-4868
SPIN-code: 8938-2621

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, 117997, Ostrovityanova str.1, Moscow

Aida S. Abusueva

Dagestan State Medical Academy

Email: amur39@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6999-1696
SPIN-code: 4713-7110

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med.), Associate Professor

Russian Federation, Makhachkala

Natalya A. Antipyat

Infectious Clinical Hospital No. 1

Author for correspondence.
Email: natadoc70@bk.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8578-2838
SPIN-code: 6105-6285

MD

Russian Federation, 117997, Ostrovityanova str.1, Moscow

References

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  3. Kozlov AA, Shevchuk IV, Zavialov AE, Emelyanov AN. Generalized tetanus in an 11-year-old boy: A case report. Russian Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Anesthesia and Intensive Care. 2021;11(1):69–75. (In Russ). doi: 10.17816/psaic693
  4. Kurmaeva DYu, Melnikov VL, Shubina YuA. A case of post-traumatic tetanus in the Penza region. Bulletin of Penza State University. 2020;(1):68–71. (In Russ).
  5. Pérez-González A, Fernández-Castro I, Araújo-Ameijeiras A, et al. Tetanus, analysis of 29 cases. Med Clin (Barc). 2022;159(3): 147–151. doi: 10.1016/j.medcli.2022.02.021
  6. Galina NP, Mindlina AYa, Polibin RV. Surveying children and adult vaccination program against diphtheria, tetanus, measles and viral hepatitis B in the Russian Federation. Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2019;9(5-6):779–786. (In Russ). doi: 10.15789/2220-7619-2019-5-6-779-786
  7. Drobinina AV, Butin MI, Ukolova ES, Likhogray LI. Emergency prevention of tetanus in surgical patients in Orenburg. Bulletin of medical Internet conferences. 2019;9(6):261. (In Russ).
  8. Simovanyan EM, Goncharova EL, Denisenko VB. Tetanus is a difficult diagnosis in children. Children Infections. 2019;18(4):70–72. (In Russ). doi: 10.22627/2072-8107-2019-18-4-70-72
  9. Sah SP, Khanal S, Dahal S, et al. Generalized tetanus in an elderly patient: A case report. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2022;81:104465. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2022.104465

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