Vol 16, No 5 (2011)


Biochips in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis

Litvinov V.I., Nosova E.Y., Krasnova A., Galkina K.Y., Bukatina A.A., Moroz A.M., Litvinov V.I., Nosova E.Y., Krasnova M.A., Galkina K.Y., Bukatina A.A., Moroz A.M.


The use of molecular biochips has been shown to considerably accelerate the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis and, when used with an automated BACTEC MGIT 960 system, to obtain a result in 90% of the examinees within 10 days irrespective of bacillary burden. The biochips make it possible to study the genetic diversity of mutations and their combinations in the rpoB, katG, inhA, oxyR, and gyrA genes and to rapidly detect drug-resistant Mycobacterium strains and may serve as additional genetic markers for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains circulating in the Moscow Region.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):4-8
pages 4-8 views

HIV infection and hepatitis C among patients at health care facilities of different specialization

Godkov M.A., Briko N.I., Ermolov A.S., Zakharova N.M., Godkov M.A., Briko N.I., Ermolov A.S., Zakharova N.M.


The detection rate for HIV infection and hepatitis C was analyzed in patients from health care facilities of different specialization in three boroughs of Moscow in 2007 to 2010 and from the clinical and intensive care units of medical emergency care hospitals. There was a relationship of the degree of HIV infection in patients in need of medical emergency care to their medicosocial characteristics. The accumulation of the infected was demonstrated in the marginal populations.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):9-13
pages 9-13 views

Borrelia infection as an important risk factor for severe coronary heart disease

Bondarenko A.L., Tarlovskaya E.I., Zholobova T.V., Bondarenko A.L., Tarlovskaya E.I., Zholobova T.V.


The paper considers the impact of Borrelia infection on the course of ischemic heart disease (IHD), its role in myocardial remodeling and cardiomegaly development. The study shows that IHD in the presence of persistent Borrelia infection took a severer course, as appeared as the development of cardiomegaly and myocardial reinfarctions.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):14-18
pages 14-18 views

Water ballast problems: Current aspects

Vodyanitskaya S.Y., Lyakh O.V., Ryzhkov Y.V., Lomov Y.M., Prometnoy V.I., Kruglikov V.D., Vodyanitskaya S.Y., Lyakh O.V., Ryzhkov Y.V., Lomov Y.M., Prometnoy V.I., Kruglikov V.D.


This investigation was undertaken to study whether Vibrio cholerae might be imported by the ballast waters discharged by sea-going ships into the water area of the Taganrog bay and to analyze current ballast water management on board the ships arriving at the port of Taganrog. The ballast water samples taken from ships at the port of Taganrog in the May-September of 2010 were the subject of investigation. Ninety-eight samples taken from 87 ships were examined. V. cholerae nonO1/non O139 serogroup strains were found in 25 samples. The salinity index was determined in 22 samples. Ship documents regulating ballast operations were examined. Some motor ships and their traffic may be referred to as a group at risk for V. cholerae importation. Researches to elaborate normative documents regulating the bacteriological study of water ballast are urgent for improving the epidemiological surveillance of cholera.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):18-22
pages 18-22 views

Results of preclinical and clinical trials of a new antiseptic

Prisakar' V.I., Buracheva S.A., Gidirim G.P., Prisekaru I.V., Tsapkov V.I., Prisakar V.I., Buracheva S.A., Gidirim G.P., Prisekaru I.V., Tsapkov V.I.


A new synthetic nitrofuran agent was obtained, which was used to design the antiseptic isofural as 0.05% solution for the treatment and prevention of external pyoseptic processes. In vitro and in vivo preclinical trials of the pharmaceutical active substance and the drug and the clinical testing of the latter showed its antibacterial activity and a high efficacy in the treatment of external pyoinflammatory processes and burns and in the prevention of postsurgical pyoinflammatory complications. The designed agent is 12-fold less toxic and 2-20-fold more active (depending on the species of a microorganism) than its structural analogue furacilinum. It completely suppresses the growth and multiplication of gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms in the shortest periods after contact with them and contributes to the rapid elimination of a pyoinflammatory process. The drug has neither carcinogenic nor embryotoxic effects, it does not cause any pathological changes in the hemogram and blood biochemical parameters and any destructive changes in the viscera and skin.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):22-26
pages 22-26 views

The specific features of HIV infection among married couples in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Giyasova G.M., Giyasova G.M.


The paper describes the epidemic process of a rise of HIV infection. More and more women, married ones in particular, are infected with HIV, which indicates the spread of the epidemic from risk groups to the general population. This all requires respective preventive measures with the participation of governmental and nongovernmental organizations.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):26-29
pages 26-29 views

Examination of tick-borne encephalitis foci in the Middle Volga Region to optimize their prevention

Nafeev A.A., Nafeyev A.A.


Despite the fact that the epidemiology of tick-borne virus encephalitis (TBVE) in the forest-steppe zone of the Middle Volga Region has been studied for many decades, the data on the manifestation of this arbovirus infection and the specific features of its spread remain still incomplete. As of now, the Ulyanovsk Region notifies sporadic cases as the subclinical and feverish clinical forms of TBVE, which manifest as self-relieved forms that require no special treatment. Examination of the ticks taken from 19 persons (in 2007-2008) identified tick-borne encephalitis virus antigen and a serological assay revealed immunoglobulins M only in one case without visible clinical manifestations. In this connection, in the package of prophylactic measures, there is extreme prevention using specific homologous antitick-borne immunoglobulin in persons with adhered ticks by suction, as well as a permanently immunological screening of the persons in contact with ticks, thereby promoting the establishment of the true spread of TBVE in the areas having no active natural foci of this infection, which have a dominant role in their efficiency when correctly made in the areas with the small activity of natural TBVE foci.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):30-32
pages 30-32 views

Molecular mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to reserve-series drugs

Nizova A.V., Stepanshina V.N., Shemyakin I.G., Nizova A.V., Stepanshina V.N., Shemyakin I.G.


The review presents the data currently available in the literature on the mechanisms responsible for the development of resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to reserve-series drugs, such as prothionamide, ethionamide, kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, cycloserine, rifabutin, PAS, and a group of fluoroquinolones.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):33-38
pages 33-38 views

ECHO and Coxsackie B enteroviruses as pathogens of epidemic and persistent infections: a review

Slobodenyuk V.K., Glinskikh N.P., Grigor'eva Y.V., Patsyuk N.V., Bessergeneva I.K., Slobodenyuk V.K., Glinskikh N.P., Grigoryeva Y.V., Patsuk N.V., Bessergeneva I.K.


The review considers retrospective information on the epidemic rise and outbreaks of enterovirus infections, mainly as central nervous system lesion identified as aseptic meningitis. The resistance of neuropathogenic properties, which is associated with the predominance of certain serotypes of ECHO and Coxsackie B viruses, has been noted to preserve over time. The persistence, cardio- and pacreatotropicity of the viruses in question are given in evidenced-based studies and in cases of clinical diseases.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):38-42
pages 38-42 views

Brucellosis in Russia: Occupational diseases and job prognosis

Tsirel'son L.E., Zheludkov M.M., Tsirelson L.E., Zheludkov M.M.


In 2005-2009, there was a rise in cases of brucellosis, an occupational disease. In 2007-2009, the rate proportion of disability due to brucellosis was 32.3 ± 3.9%, which is 4-fold greater than that in the 1980s. Disability was formed more frequently in those contacting an infection source in the foci of cattle brucellosis (62.0 ± 5.2%) and its mixed type (34.5+6.7%). These mainly included veterinary and livestock specialists (48.6 ± 6.0%), animal carers (21.1 ± 3.4%), livestock breeders (12.0 ± 2.7%), and dairymaids (7.7 ± 2.2%).
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):43-47
pages 43-47 views

Malignant hemorrhagic chickenpox in brothers

Ratnikova L.I., Mironov I.L., Ratnikova L.I., Mironova I.L.


The paper describes two cases of particularly severe hemorrhagic chickenpox in brothers with a poor prognosis in the presence of primary immunodeficiency. Its clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological characteristics are shown.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):48-49
pages 48-49 views

Analysis of the outbreak of highly virulent influenza A (H1N1) in the Transbaikal Territory in 2009

Kizhlo L.B., Emel'yanova A.N., Kalinina E.N., Sergeeva E.I., Shunyaeva E.V., Urbazaeva A.A., Loginova N.Y., Veselova E.V., Kizhlo L.B., Emelyanova A.N., Kalinina E.N., Sergeyeva E.I., Shunyaeva E.V., Urbazayeva A.A., Loginova N.Y., Veselova E.V.


Analyzing 101 case histories of patients with influenza A(H1N1) who were treated at the Territorial Infectious Diseases Hospital in the town of Chita in October to December 2009 indicated the vulnerability of pregnant women and patients with chronic lung disease and obesity in both the Transbaikal Territory and other regions, the impact of seasonal vaccination on the number of infection cases, as well as increased needs for admission with regard to the pathogen ability to afflict the lower respiratory tract, resulting in the progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome and pneumonia.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):50-52
pages 50-52 views

Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences V. D. Belyakov (on the occasion of the 90th anniversary of his birth)

Knopov M.S., Taranukha V.K., Knopov M.S., Taranukha V.K.


The paper describes the life and creative work of Professor Vitaly Dmitriyevich Belyakov, Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, an outstanding Russian epidemiologist, a talented health administrator, a public figure, and a teacher.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):53-55
pages 53-55 views

Role of bacteriologist Nikolay Mikhailovich Berestnev in the control of contagious diseases in the Russian Empire in the late 19th to the early 20th century (on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his death)

Blokhina N.N., Blokhina N.N.


The paper deals with the life and activity of the outstanding bacteriologist Nikolay Mikhailovich Berestnev. His actions to control contagious diseases (plague, cholera, malaria, actinomycosis) in the Russian Empire the late 19th to the early 20th century are analyzed. His activity as the head of a fort "Emperor Alexander I" is described.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2011;16(5):55-62
pages 55-62 views

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