Vol 15, No 5 (2010)


Trends and social prognosis in different forms of the epidemic process of hepatitides B and C in the city of Ufa

Kaydanek T.V., Efimov G.E., Vorob'ev A.S., Shagieva Z.A., Kaidanek T.V., Yefimov G.Y., Vorobyev A.S., Shagiyeva Z.A.


The follow-up of the manifestations of different forms of the epidemic process of hepatitides B and C and their ratio estimation have established the preserved high epidemiological and social significance by the asymptomatic variant of hepatitis B, the reduced tension of this criteria by the chronic and acute components. The similar situation was revealed by the acute form of hepatitis C, and conversely, the poor prognosis by the chronic and asymptomatic forms was more evident than that in hepatitis B.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):4-8
pages 4-8 views

The safety problem for neonates and puerperas in the facilities of Nizhni Novgorod and its region

Blagonravova A.S., Shkarin V.V., Alekseeva I.G., Kovalishena O.V., Ivanova N.Y., Knyagina O.N., Okun' I.N., Bakhtina L.M., Blagonravova A.S., Shkarin V.V., Alekseyeva I.G., Kovalishena O.V., Ivanova N.Y., Knyagina O.N., Okun I.N., Bakhtina L.M.


The paper gives the results of a comprehensive assessment of the epidemiological situation and the characteristics of the sensitivity of the microflora in the obstetric facilities of Nizhni Novgorod and its region to antibacterial drugs (antibiotics, disinfectants). There is a wide circulation of the strains that are adapted to the conditions of a health care facility of this kind and polyresistant to antibiotics and disinfectants in the environment of obstetric facilities. The structure of isolated microorganisms shows a species-specific diversity (4 genera and 22 species) with a preponderance of Staphylococcus spp.; there is a high proportion of polyresistent strains (24.3 to 71.4%) in various health care facilities and there is a high resistance to disinfectants (9.1-50% resistant strains). Studies have been under way to choose effective disinfectants.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):9-15
pages 9-15 views

The width of mold circulation among patients in the children's hospital environment

Sergevnin V.I., Kudryavtseva L.G., Shytsina L.V., Golovenkina A.Y., Smirnova L.N., Alatyreva N.F., Sarmometov E.V., Sergevnin V.I., Kudryavtseva L.G., Shytsina L.V., Golovenkina A.Y., Smirnova L.N., Alatyreva N.F., Sarmometov Y.V.


Two hundred and twenty-six inpatients were examined for molds in the cancer, hematology, pulmonology, and intensive care units of a children's hospital. Seven-three air samples collected in the hospital rooms and 201 washings from hospital environmental objects were simultaneously taken. The findings suggest that molds widely spread among the inpatients and in the hospital environment of the cancer, hematology, and pulmonology units of a children's hospital. There is evidence that in children's hospital patients, mold infection is hospital-acquired in most cases. There is a disparity between risk groups for mold infection and mycoses. The group risk for infection was pulmonology unit patients with cystic fibrosis and that for the disease was immunocompromised cancer unit patients with lymphoblastic leukemia.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):15-19
pages 15-19 views

Use of bacteriophages in epidemiological practice: a view after a century

Drozdova O.M., Brusina E.B., Drozdova O.M., Brusina Y.B.


The paper discusses the experience in using bacteriophages in the environment for preventive and anti-epidemic purposes; it provides both a theoretical rationale for the method and the specific features of their practical application. Attention is given to perspective for their use. Bacteriophages are shown to have high epidemiological benefits in nosocomial pyoseptic and enteric infections.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):20-24
pages 20-24 views

Monitoring of the Vibrio flora of environmental water objects in the cholera epidemiological surveillance system

Lomov Y.M., Telesmanich N.R., Kruglikov V.D., Avdeeva E.P., Ezhova M.I., Shestialtynova I.S., Shalu O.A., Nepomnyashchaya N.B., Arkhangel'skaya I.V., Lomov Y.M., Telesmanich N.R., Kruglikov V.D., Avdeyeva Y.P., Yezhova M.I., Shestialtynova I.S., Shalu O.A., Nepomnyashchaya N.B., Arkhangelskaya I.V.


Twenty-four Vibrio cholerae O1 Eltor cultures and 700 V. cholerae nonO1/non/O139 strains were isolated during the 2003-2008 monitoring of the surface water reservoirs and waste waters of Rostov-on-Don. The specific features of V. cholerae circulation were revealed in the environmental water objects in the area under study. These included a dynamic increasing trend for the number of annually isolated cultures; detection of single epidemiologically dangerous strains during cholera epidemic well-being; no direct quantitative relationship between the found strains of V. cholerae of the serological groups O1 and nonO1/nonO139 strains. The microbiological and epidemiological aspects of the monitoring of surface water reservoirs and waste waters for V. cholerae were considered. The monitoring of the Vibrio flora of environmental water objects was shown to promote the higher effectiveness of cholera epidemiological surveillance in the areas under control.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):24-28
pages 24-28 views

Determination of the specific features of the plasmid spectrum of the hospital pathogenic strains of acute enteric infections, circulating in the Tula Region

Kurakin S.E., Kurakin E.S.


The plasmid spectrum of hospital Sh. flexneri and S. typhimurium strains was studied; the clonal types of pathogens circulating in the Tula Region were revealed. The plasmid portrait of the causative agents of nosocomial infections was determined. There is evidence that the characteristics of their virulence are determined by the specificity of the plasmid profile. Molecular genetic typing methods used to analyze the epidemic process were demonstrated to be of importance; in particular, it is concluded that one can regard rises in the incidence of dysenteria at mental hospitals as a large interhospital outbreak.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):29-32
pages 29-32 views

HIV infection at a multidisciplinary hospital

Lobzin Y.V., Bulan'kov Y.I., Bolekhan V.N., Orlova E.S., Lobzin Y.V., Bulankov Y.I., Bolekhan V.N., Orlova Y.S.


Eight hundred and fifty-seven patients with HIV infection were treated at a multidisciplinary health care facility, Ministry of the Russian Federation in the period 1995-2008. From 2005 to 2008, the proportion of patients in a stage of AIDS increased from 5.5 to 25.6%. Half of the patients needed intensive care and surgical treatment. HIV was first detected in 48.9% of the patients; 35% concealed their HIV status on admission to the health care facility. In this connection, there is an increase in the risk for hospital-acquired infection in medical staff.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):32-35
pages 32-35 views

The effectiveness and economics of bacteriological control of blood components

Zhiburt E.B., Vergopulo A.A., Maksimov V.A., Kopchenko T.G., Zhiburt Y.B., Vergopulo A.A., Maksimov V.A., Kopchenko T.G.


The efficiency of screening for bacterial contamination of the components of blood and the possibilities of its improvement were estimated. The total volume of stored blood in Russia is more than 1.5 million liters annually. No more than 10 liters are rejected for bacterial contamination and more than 10 tons of blood is used for bacteriological control. The standing instruction for controlling of the sterility of preserved blood, its components, preparations, preserved bone marrow, blood substitutes, and preserving solutions (1995) lays down that the blood and its components stored in plastic containers are to be selectively controlled.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):35-40
pages 35-40 views

Landscape epidemiology of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the Middle Volga Region

Nafeev A.A., Korobeynikova A.S., Sibaeva E.I., Klochkova L.A., Gaynieva L.M., Nafeyev A.A., Korobeinikova A.S., Sibayeva E.I., Klochkova L.A., Gainiyeva L.M.


Human economic activity impairs the biocenotic relationships existing in the animal world and causes the formation of new ties that affect the epizootic and epidemiological situation of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). This accounts for the confinement of the natural foci of HFRS to the forest biotopes that preserve pathogen vectors and to the latter's absence in the human settlements surrounded by the transformed landscapes where the sources of the infection have disappeared from the composition of biocenoses. The European red-backed mouse (Clethrionomys) is the major reservoir in nature. The broad-leaved and mixed coniferous-broad-leaved forests of the Ural and Middle Volga Regions are the optimum area of this rodent. The Ulyanovsk Region has three types of landscapes: subtaiga, forest-steppe, and steppe zones. In the subtaiga zone, mortality is 5.4 and 10.7 times greater than that in the forest-steppe and steppe zones, respectively. Examining the epidemic process of HFRS has brought to light that its higher rates in the subtaiga area are due to a combination of social, natural, and biological factors. Success in combating the feral nidal infection cannot be expected without investigating the landscape features of its foci (a natural factor), without clarifying the forms of relationships of the pathogen with the host - the rodent and the environment (a biological factor), without taking into account the population groups that come into interaction with the pathogen population (a social factor).
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):40-42
pages 40-42 views

A case of leptospirosis in the endemic region

Bondarenko A.L., Khlebnikova N.V., Kozlova E.E., Zhuykova V.I., Bondarenko A.L., Khlebnikova N.V., Kozlova Y.Y., Zhuikova V.I.


The paper describes a case that shows difficulties in the differential diagnosis of leptospirosis in the endemic region. The polymorphism of its clinical manifestations and the inadequate informative value of serological methods for diagnosis in the early stages of the disease create diagnostic difficulties. The negative result of the first serological study for leptospirosis is a diagnostic exclusion criterion.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):42-44
pages 42-44 views

Diarrhea as a manifestation of abdominal tuberculosis

Aryamkina O.L., Savonenkova L.N., Aryamkina O.L., Savonenkova L.N.


The study was undertaken to define major differential diagnostic criteria for abdominal tuberculosis accompanied by diarrhea. One hundred and fort-two patients with abdominal tuberculosis, including 61 patients diagnosed as having gastrointestinal tuberculosis involving the intestinal tract, were examined. Eighty-one (57%) patients with abdominal tuberculosis had diarrhea, the latter was acute in 22 (27.2) cases of them and it was characterized as chronic organic in 59 (72.8%). Enteric infections and intestinal diseases of other etiology, including ulcerative and Crohn's disease, were excluded in one (30.3%) and two thirds. Histological signs are decisive in the diagnosis of the disease. The exudation mechanism is responsible in intestinal mucosal lesion and mainly increased peristaltic activity and irritation of intestinal nerve endings are in abdominal tuberculous lymphadenitis.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):44-47
pages 44-47 views

Monotherapy is a possibility of simplifying an antiretroviral therapy regimen

Kravchenko A.V., Kuimova U.A., Kravchenko A.V., Kuimova U.A.


The European AIDS Clinical Society guidelines (November 2009, Version 5) are the first to propose to use ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI) as monotherapy. These treatment regimens may be the modality of choice for HIV-infected patients if nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) are not tolerated or the ART regimen should be simplified. The paper gives the results of the largest studies (MONET, OK04, OREY) dealing with switching from a standard ART regimen (2 NRTIs + PI) to PI monotherapy. The results of these studies provide strong evidence that ART regimen simplification to boosted PI monotherapy did not affect in the least therapeutic efficiency. After 48-96 weeks of monotherapy, treatment failure was recorded in 15-23% of patients; however, return to the previous therapeutic regime (addition of two former drugs from a NRTI group) allowed complete suppression of virus replication to be achieved again in 80% of cases. Development of PI resistance mutations in HIV was recorded only in single patients. PI monotherapy regimens were well tolerated, there were no adverse reactions associated with the use of NRTIs.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):48-50
pages 48-50 views

The specific features of the current course of acute respiratory viral infection/ influenza during epidemic surge and the efficiency of antiretroviral therapy in patients with influenza A/H1N1/-sw

Orlova S.N., Shibacheva N.N., Dovgalyuk T.I., Averina I.V., Kalistratov N.V., Al'per I.A., Ukolova S.V., Orlova S.N., Shibacheva N.N., Dovgalyuk T.I., Averina I.V., Kalistratov N.V., Alper I.A., Ukolova S.V.


The results of analyzing the epidemic surge in the incidence of acute respiratory viral infection/influenza, including highly pathogenic influenza, in the Ivanovo Region, are presented. The specific features of the clinical course of infection and altered laboratory changes are defined and the predictors of the development of complications are ascertained. The efficiency of antiviral therapy is shown in the treatment of influenza A/H1N1/-sw.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):51-54
pages 51-54 views

Socioprofessional personality formation in future specialists in particularly dangerous infections in a pedagogical process at the courses of primary specialization

Lotsmanova E.Y., Boyko A.V., Tikhomirova L.A., Malyukova T.A., Yusupova Z.S., Lotsmanova Y.Y., Boiko A.V., Tikhomirova L.A., Malyukova T.A., Yusupova Z.S.


Socioprofessional personality formation in future specialists in particularly dangerous infections is considered in the context of socialization: theoretical bases and their practical application. Data on the detection of reactive and personality anxiety in primary specialization course learners are presented. It is concluded that it is necessary to create organizational conditions that favor the regulation of anxiety, to provide reliability when handling pathogenic biologicals, and to elaborate active sociopsychological training programs.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):54-57
pages 54-57 views

Akademik M. N. Solov'ev i ego shkola

Knopov M.S., Taranukha V.K.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):58-60
pages 58-60 views

Plague epidemic control in Manchzhuria in 1910-1911

Blokhina N.N., Blokhina N.N.


The paper deals with the history of controlling the plague epidemic in Manchzhuria in 1910-1911. The efforts of the Russian Empire's state figures to control plague are analyzed. The work of the Irkutsk Plague Congress (7-14 February, 1911) is analyzed.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):60-63
pages 60-63 views

M. G. Shandala. Aktual'nye voprosy obshchey dezinfektologii. Izbrannye lektsii

Pokrovskiy V.I., Briko N.I.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(5):64-64
pages 64-64 views

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