Vol 15, No 4 (2010)


Maleev Viktor Vasil'evich (k 70-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya)

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Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):2-2
pages 2-2 views

Globalization and an epidemic process

Briko N.I., Pokrovskiy V.I., Briko N.I., Pokrovsky V.I.


The paper presents the results of analyzing the influence of major factors for globalization on the clinical and epidemiological manifestations of communicable diseases. Globalization is shown to considerably change the essence of an epidemic process and to affect its all component elements, by substantially accelerating the emergence and prevalence of communicable diseases. All five major aspects of globalization, such as economic, environmental, political, demographic, and technological ones, are closely related and affect both the prevalence of communicable diseases and the possibility of their prevention, control, and treatment. It is concluded that, by taking into account the global pattern of the threat associated with communicable diseases, a comprehensive approach that, in addition to international law on health care service, comprises the regulations and principles of other branches: international law of human rights, international environmental, commercial, humanitarian, and criminal laws, is the most effective method for counteracting this threat. The political will of states and the mechanism for financing the setting up of global and national infrastructures to follow all determinants of the epidemic process are of great importance in providing epidemiological security.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):4-10
pages 4-10 views

Hepatitis A: Epidemiological features during partial immunization

Ignatova O.A., Yushchenko G.V., Kaira A.N., Ignatova O.A., Yushchenko G.V., Kaira A.N.


The authors analyzed data on the incidence of hepatitis in the Moscow Region in 1997 to 2008. The etiological pattern of acute viral hepatitides was examined. Their incidence rates were retrospectively analyzed by age and transmission routes; their seasonality determined. The aqueous factor was studied for its influence on the prevalence of the disease by the region's areas. Hepatitis outbreak morbidity rates were analyzed. Four hundred and seventy-four epidemiological survey records for domestic hepatitis A foci were also explored. The region's immunoprophylaxis was investigated.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):10-15
pages 10-15 views

Tuberculosis morbidity among Moscow healthcare workers in 1995-2008

Satsuk A.V., Akimkin V.G., Khrapunova I.A., Polibin R.V., Efimov M.V., Lytkina I.N., Satsuk A.V., Akimkin V.G., Khrapunova I.A., Polibin R.V., Yefimov M.V., Lytkina I.N.


The paper characterizes tuberculosis morbidity among the healthcare workers of Moscow versus its adult population. Its considerable rise has been established. Occupational factors and tuberculosis risk groups have been determined in this professional category. Tuberculosis facilities, forensic medical examination bureaus, first-aid stations, hospital departments of morbid anatomy, and clinical and postmortem laboratories have been found to be of high epidemiological importance in determining the incidence of tuberculosis among Moscow healthcare workers. Its further studies and development of present-day programs to prevent nosocomial tuberculosis among the staff of health care facilities are needed.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):15-20
pages 15-20 views

Estimation of economic damage on a model of accidence on working with Groups I-II pathogenic biological agents

Malyukova T.A., Tikhomirova L.A., Sukhonosov I.Y., Golovko E.M., Plotnikova E.A., Bessonova O.L., Boyko A.V., Malyukova T.A., Tikhomirova L.A., Sukhonosov I.Y., Golovko Y.M., Plotnikova Y.A., Bessonova O.L., Boiko A.V.


The paper presents the calculations of total economic damage to an institution from spraying accidents during experimental work with non-forming and forming spores of pathogenicity groups I-II microorganisms. The losses were estimated in accordance with the current normative-methodic documents.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):20-25
pages 20-25 views

Economic damage caused by major nosocomial pyoseptic infections in newborn babies and puerperas

Markovich N.I., Sergevnin V.I., Sharafutdinova R.R., Votekova R.G., Chirkova E.A., Markovich N.I., Sergevnin V.I., Sharafutdinova R.R., Votekova R.G., Chirkova Y.A.


The results of examining 100 case records of the neonates transferred from obstetric hospitals to the neonatal units of children's hospitals for signs of pyoseptic infections (PSI) at various sites (conjunctivitis, omphalitis, dermal PSI, and concomitant forms of PSI) and 22 case records of the women admitted to the gynecological units as diagnosed as having puerperal endometritis were used to estimate economic damage per case of nosocomial PSI in newborn babies and puerperas as the cost of laboratory tests and antibiotic and general health-improving treatments plus the basic tariff without the average value of diagnostic and therapeutic measures. The economic losses per case of major PSIs averaged 7510.1 rbl., which was equal to 306 USD or 209 EUR (as of January 1, 2008). The economic damage caused by a case of puerperal endometritis was 8722.8 rbl, which was equal to 355.4 USD or 242.8 EUR.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):26-29
pages 26-29 views

Role of women in the transmission of HIV/AIDS to the general population of the Republic of Tajikistan

Rafiev K.K., Soliev A.A., Ruziev M.M., Rafiyev K.K., Soliyev A.A., Ruziyev M.M.


The authors present the results of analyzing the epidemic process of HIV/AIDS in Tajikistan. There is a rise in the number of cases of HIV infection among women. Increased susceptibility to HIV infection has been found in pregnant women who can play a great role in the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS to the general population.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):29-31
pages 29-31 views

Analysis of fatal outcomes in HIV infection

Sotnichenko S.A., Sklyar L.F., Sotnichenko S.A., Sklyar L.F.


The Russian Federation holds the lead in the highest growth rates for the number of new cases of HIV infection and its prognosis remains poor for the years immediate ahead with the rapidly increased rates in the scope of its epidemic being borne in mind. In the Far Eastern Federal District, the Primorye Territory rates first in the number of cases of HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of secondary and opportunistic diseases that were a cause of death in HIV-infected patients in the Territorial Clinical Center for Prevention and Control of AIDS and Infectious Diseases, Vladivostok, in 2007. In this year, the mortality rate was 13.6%, which was 1.6 times higher than that in 2006. Tuberculosis the incidence of which was 48.5% occupied the first place in the structure of secondary diseases resulting in a fatal outcome in HIV-infected patients. The proportion of hepatic cirrhosis was 22.9% in the structure of fatal outcomes.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):31-34
pages 31-34 views

TLR-2 and TLR-4 expression levels as a prognostic index for recovery from chlamydiasis

Bayrakova S.S., Voropaeva E.A., Aleshkin V.A., Afanas'ev S.S., Karaulov A.V., Kafarskaya L.I., Nesvizhskiy Y.V., Efimov B.A., Shkoporov A.N., Grechishnikova O.G., Levakov S.A., Metel'skaya V.A., Afanas'ev M.S., Egorova E.A., Slobodenyuk V.V., Fandeev E.V., Bairakova A.L., Voropayeva Y.A., Alyoshkin V.A., Afanasyev S.S., Karaulov A.V., Kafarskaya L.I., Nesvizhsky Y.V., Yefimov B.A., Shkoporov A.N., Grechishnikova O.G., Levakov S.A., Metelskaya V.A., Afanasyev M.S., Yegorova Y.A., Slobodenyuk V.V., Fandeyev Y.V.


The authors studied an association between the expression of TLR-2 and TLR-4 on the epithelial surfaces of the urogenital tract and the clinical manifestations of female urogenital chlamydial infection. Clinical and laboratory studies were conducted in 41 patients with acute urogenital chlamydial infection, 29 patients with chronic urogenital chlamydial infection, 30 patients with a history of diagnosed urogenital chlamydiasis (the markers of these microorganisms had not been detected in the urogenital tract by any of the used studies for a year), and 32 healthy female donors (a control group). The levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 can serve as criteria for evaluating the degree of chlamydial infection and the presence of an inflammatory process in patients. The eradication of the pathogen can be judged from the changes in the levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 in some cases when the causative agent was not identified by laboratory tests before treatment and the diagnosis was established in a patient from the markers that were indirectly indicative of her chlamydial infection. The enhanced protective reaction in the focus of affliction is always accompanied by increased TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation. The low levels of TLR-2 and TLR-4 can indicate that the infectious process may become chronic.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):35-42
pages 35-42 views

Problems in the organization of prophylaxis of tick-borne infections in the urban population

Nafeev A.A., Nafeyev A.A.


The authors have examined the clinical manifestations of Ixodes tick-borne borrelioses (TBB) in the Ulyanovsk Region and the obtained first results of indication of TBB virus antigen in the ticks. The specific prophylactic measures implemented among urban dwellers so far are noted to be insufficient and to require to be revised in the shortest possible time, by taking into account the specific prevention of TBB in strictly specialized professional population categories (geologists, operators, as well as gas and oil workers on rotation).
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):42-44
pages 42-44 views

Lifetime diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in an infant with meningococcal infection

Lastovka I.N., Ocheretniy M.D., Matveev V.A., Lastovka I.N., Ocheretniy M.D., Matveyev V.A.


The generalized forms of meningococcal infection are a serious health care problem. Fulminant meningococcemia is a form of infection with extremely rapid progression and high mortality, which more frequently occurs in infants of the first year of life. Autopsy study revealed bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (hemorrhagic necrosis). Acute adrenal insufficiency requires the administration of glucocorticosteroids (GCS) in particularly severe forms of meningococcemia. However, it is unadvisable to use GCS in patients with infectious toxic shock in the absence of adrenal insufficiency as it fails to affect survival in the early period and increases death rates in the late period due to the fact that superinfections may develop. Ultrasonography may be useful in detecting adrenal hemorrhagic necrosis in a patient with meningococcal infection just on his/her admission and in making an immediate decision to initiate GCS therapy. The paper describes a case of the lifetime diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in a paper with fulminant meningococcemia.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):44-46
pages 44-46 views

Cell genomic instability in pathological conditions of infectious genesis

Kravchenko I.E., Fazylov V.K., Semenov V.V., Kravchenko I.E., Fazylov V.K., Semenov V.V.


В обзоре представлены данные о формировании нестабильности генома соматических клеток при действии различных инфекционных агентов - вирусов, бактерий, простейших. Рассмотрены основные механизмы формирования данного феномена. Показана роль инфекционного агента, состояния метаболизма и некоторых физиологических систем организма в формировании мутаций на уровне целого организма. Многочисленные исследования позволяют сделать вывод, что нестабильность генома следует рассматривать как типовой патологический процесс в разнообразной дизрегуляторной патологии. Знание этого феномена, своевременное выявление его у больных, использование современных приемов коррекции позволят существенно влиять на течение болезни, лечение и исход.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):47-50
pages 47-50 views

The Beijing genotype of M. tuberculosis

Savilov E.D., Sin'kov V.V., Ogarkov O.B., Savilov Y.D., Sinkov V.V., Ogarkov O.B.


The review analyzes the history of emergence of M. tuberculosis as a species of human pathogenic microorganism. The properties of the Beijing genotype of M. tuberculosis as the basic family responsible for the current pandemic are described. An attempt is made to compare an update on the molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis with the main points of the theory of self-regulation of parasitic systems. By using the human DC-SIGN gene as an example, the authors discuss whether tuberculosis infection, that with the Beijing family in particular, as a factor of natural selection may have an impact on the genetic polymorphism of a human population.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):50-53
pages 50-53 views

The need for systems approach to studying the concomitant forms of viral hepatitides

Yakovlev A.A., Pozdeeva E.S., Yakovlev A.A., Pozdeyeva Y.S.


The paper systematizes the data available in the literature on the results of virological and clinical studies of the concomitant forms of viral hepatitides. It gives the results of the authors' epidemiological surveys of this problem and shows it necessary to study the latter at all hierarchy levels of the epidemic process.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):54-56
pages 54-56 views

Rationale for a quantitative indicator for evaluation of the reactogenicity of glander vaccine

Bogacheva N.V., Kuznetsov S.L., Kryuchkov A.V., Darmov I.V., Bogacheva N.V., Kuznetsov S.L., Kryuchkov A.V., Darmov I.V.


During clinical trials of glander vaccine, the authors evaluated its reactogenicity, by summing up the level of changes in a number of the most significant clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters (according to a score scale). The findings were compared with the parameters characterizing the immunological efficacy of the vaccine. A scheme for single subcutaneous use of the vaccine in a volume of 0.5 ml is warranted at the stage of state trials. This approach is recommended to choose a scheme for using other inactivated vaccines.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):57-59
pages 57-59 views

Primary specialization as a basic stage of training specialists in particularly dangerous infections

Tikhomirova L.A., Boyko A.V., Yusupova Z.S., Malyukova T.A., Lotsmanova E.Y., Tikhomirova L.A., Boiko A.V., Yusupova Z.S., Malyukova T.A., Lotsmanova Y.Y.


The paper considers whether specialists should be trained in particularly dangerous infections. Main directions for training the audience of courses are characterized. Data are given on the training program, its tasks, and the mechanisms of its implementation, methodical provision, and the audience's capabilities during and after learning the courses' program.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):60-62
pages 60-62 views

I. I. Rogozin i otechestvennaya epidemiologiya (k 110-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya)

Knopov M.S., Taranukha V.K.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):63-64
pages 63-64 views

Sergey Grigor'evich Pak (k 80-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya)

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Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(4):65-65
pages 65-65 views

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