Epidemiological characteristics of bloodstream infection in patients with somatic diseases

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In 1999, at the conference of the European Working Group on Nosocomial Infections, the term "bloodstream infection" was proposed in the presence of clinical symptoms and microorganisms in the bloodstream. The first classification of bloodstream infection consisted of 3 categories: hospital, iatrogenic and out-of-hospital. Then theywere classified into 5 categories. At the same time, bloodstream infection that occurred during the first 48 hours after the patient's admission to the medical organization were divided into 4 groups (A–D). "Group C" included bacteremia associated with invasive procedures and was classified into 5 subgroups.

The number of episodes of IR. The number of episodes of bloodstream infection in the world is growing depending on the geographical location of the country (from 1995 to 2002 increased by 40%, by 2007 ― by 14.3%). Among the sources of infection, the role of the respiratory, hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, urogenital and urinary tracts, the presence of intravascular devices and pneumonia. Bloodstream infection is characterized by frequent infestation of men, staphylococcal etiology, catheter-association, and the presence of comorbid diseases. Re-episodes of Gram-negative bloodstream infection are more likely to occur within 3 months. Until 2004, Staphylococcus aureus was the leading pathogen of bloodstream infection; after 2005, Escherichia coli dominated.

These two pathogens succeeded each other in different years. Currently, pathogens of bloodstream infection in patients with therapeutic profile are gram-positive cocci, including CNS, S. aureus, enterococci, fungi and anaerobes. Bloodstream infection is characterized by polymicrobiality (35.7%), including bacterial-fungal (22%).

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Natalya M. Kargaltseva

G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology

Author for correspondence.
Email: kargaltseva@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3245-5486
SPIN-code: 4727-7192

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med), Research Associate

Russian Federation, 10, Admiral Makarov Street, Moscow, 125212

Andrey Yu. Mironov

G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology; Federal Research and Clinical Center of Specialized Medical Care and Medical Technologies FMBA of Russia

Email: andy.60@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8544-5230
SPIN-code: 9225-1560

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 10, Admiral Makarov Street, Moscow, 125212; Moscow

Tatyana G. Suranova

Federal Research and Clinical Center of Specialized Medical Care and Medical Technologies FMBA of Russia

Email: suranovatatiana@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3411-1027
SPIN-code: 7326-5273

MD, Cand. Sci. (Med), Associate Professor

Russian Federation, Moscow

Olga Yu. Borisova

G.N. Gabrichevsky Research Institute for Epidemiology and Microbiology

Email: olgborisova@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6316-5046
SPIN-code: 6396-2606

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, 10, Admiral Makarov Street, Moscow, 125212

Vladimir I. Kocherovets

The First Sechenov Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University)

Email: dibuny.nevi@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7720-670X
SPIN-code: 7013-7329

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, Moscow


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