Vol 15, No 6 (2010)


Comparative analysis of the incidence of tick-borne borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in the regions of Russian Federation by using a geographic information system in 2000-2006

Zaval'skiy L.Y., Shtannikov A.V., Biketov D.S., Khramov M.V., Dyatlov I.A., Zavalsky L.Y., Shtannikov A.V., Biketov D.S., Khramov M.V., Dyatlov I.A.


An ArcView geographic information system (GIS) was used to comparatively analyze data on the incidence of Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in 89 administrative regions of the Russian Federation in the period 2000 to 2006. All baseline data were processed in the unified global system of geographic coordinates. The employment of GIS technologies to analyze statistics on infectious diseases allows rapid visualization and scaling of epidemiological data on any regions and areas therefore they may be recommended to organize an operative control of the natural foci of infectious diseases and a retrospective analysis of the information accumulated
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):4-10
pages 4-10 views

Epizootologic and epidemiological analysis of the anthrax situation in the Republic of Buryatia (1995-2008)

Dugarzhapova Z.F., Rodzikovskiy A.V., Chesnokova M.V., Balakhonov S.V., Boloshinov A.B., Khankhareev S.S., Boloshinova N.P., Namnoeva L.K., Shoboeva R.S., Yuzvik L.N., Laul' Z.L., Mosorova A.V., Dugarzhapova Z.F., Rodzikovsky A.V., Chesnokova M.V., Balakhonov S.V., Boloshinov A.B., Khankhareyev S.S., Boloshinova N.P., Namnoyeva L.K., Shoboyeva R.S., Yuzvik L.N., Laul Z.L., Mosorova A.V.


The epizootic and epidemic anthrax situation was retrospectively analyzed in the Republic of Buryatia in 1995-2008. In Buryatia, the average long-term morbidity (0.163±0.072 per 100,000 population) was 9.1 times greater than that in Siberia (0.018±0.017). Four areas of the republic notified 88 cases of bovine anthrax. Twenty-three human cases of mainly its cutaneous form belonged to the non-occupationally contaminated farm-related type of the bovine subtype. All epizootologic and epidemiological complications of anthrax in this period are described. A package of preventive measures is proposed to improve epidemiological surveillance of anthrax in the Republic of Buryatia.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):11-15
pages 11-15 views

Long-term trends in the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis in the Krasnodar Territory

Zhukova L.I., Rafeenko G.K., Nikishina T.F., Leshcheva G.A., Mkrtchan M.O., Vanyukov A.A., Kukkoev S.P., Zhukova L.I., Rafeyenko G.K., Nikishina T.F., Leshcheyeva G.A., Mkrtchan M.O., Vanyukov A.A., Kukkoyev S.P.


The authors made a retrospective analysis of the manifestations of an epidemic process and clinical course of leptospirosis in the Krasnodar Territory over 10 years. Morbidity and mortality from this infection showed an obvious downward tendency. The age-, gender-, and residence-adjusted structure of patients generally corresponded to the altered leptospirosis epidemic and epizootic processes partially caused by antiepidemic and preventive measures. At the same time the leptospirosis-induced economic damage associated with a preponderance of patients with a severe complicated course of the disease in the structure of inpatients remained high. The results of the study formulate problems of the territory's practical health care and epidemiological service.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):15-20
pages 15-20 views

PCR detection of the type III secretion system (TTSS) genes and other pathogenicity/ persistence factors in Vibrio cholerae of different serogroups

Monakhova E.V., Smolikova L.M., Bozhko N.V., Monakhova Y.V., Smolikova L.M., Bozhko N.V.


O1, O139, and nonO1/nonO139 Vibrio cholerae strains isolated in Russia, CIS, and other countries underwent polymerase chain reaction screening for their genomic pathogenicity/persistence determinants, including the type III secretion system (TTSS) genes. The TSS genes were first found in V. cholerae O1 serogroup. These genes were shown to be absent in the test toxigenic (ctxAB+) strains of all serogroups and nontoxigenic (ctxAB-) representatives of O139 serogroup, but present in a great deal of ctxAB- strains of O1 and nonO1/nonO139 V. cholerae, including those containing a pre-CTXo/ prophage. Many of the TTSS-positive strains were pathogens of sporadic cases and local outbreaks of non-epidemic cholera. The wide spread of the vcs cluster genes among the clinical and aqueous O1 and nonO1/ nonO139 V. cholera strains suggests the involvement in both their manifestation of virulence and ability to preserve in the environmental objects; however, pathogenicity/persistence factors seem to be interchangeable.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):20-25
pages 20-25 views

Cellular immunity parameters in patients with occupationally induced chronic residual brucellosis

Ponomareva O.G., Tarkhov A.E., Ereniev S.I., Safonov A.D., Sokolova T.F., Ivanova E.A., Ponomareva O.G., Tarkhov A.Y., Yeriniyev S.I., Safonov A.D., Sokolova T.F., Ivanova Y.A.


A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 patients with occupationally induced chronic and brucellosis at the Omsk Territorial Center of Occupational Pathology. Cellular immunity parameters were analyzed in relation to the clinical form and duration of the disease and the length of work with sick animals and contaminated materials. As compared with the controls, the patients with occupational brucellosis were found to have a significant increase in the relative and absolute levels of lymphocytes, the absolute content of T helper (CD4+) and cytotoxic cells (CD8+), the values of a spontaneous HCT test, and reductions in the relative level of T cells (CD3+), phagocytosis completion index, and leukocytic index of intoxication. Immunological differences are described in patients with chronic and residual brucellosis with varying duration and length of work associated with the risk for brucellosis.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):25-30
pages 25-30 views

Comparative analysis of child morbidity in varying geomagnetic areas of the Kursk Region

Zaytseva L.Y., Kalutskiy P.V., Medvedeva O.A., Osipov V.P., Zaitseva L.Y., Kalutsky P.V., Medvedeva O.A., Osipov V.P.


Morbidity during 2001 to 2007 was analyzed in children under 14 years of age in Kursk, Zheleznogorsk, and Kursk Regions. Higher total morbidity and higher incidence of respiratory, digestive, nervous and immune mechanism-involving diseases were found in Zheleznogorsk, the distinctive feature of which was increased geomagnetic field intensity.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):30-34
pages 30-34 views

Specific features of bacterial dysentery in the Kursk magnetic anomaly area

Bel'skiy V.V., Kalutskiy P.V., Kiseleva V.V., Belsky V.V., Kalutsky P.V., Kiseleva V.V.


Bacterial dysentery has been ascertained to have fundamental features in the Kursk magnetic anomaly area, with the geomagnetic field intensity being 3.5-4 times higher than the background values. Cases of the lingering and chronic forms of the disease are more frequently notified in this region. Long-term exposure to a higher-intensity geomagnetic field causes a reduction in the level of antiinfection defense of human beings and a change in the biological characteristics of pathogens (increases in virulence, antibiotic resistance, bacterial growth, and heat stability).
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):34-38
pages 34-38 views

Clinical presentation and some parameters of nonspecific resistance in Q-fever

Karpenko S.F., Galimzyanov K.M., Kasimova N.B., Rubal'skiy O.V., Vishnevetskaya I.F., Mikhaylovskaya T.I., Abdrakhmanova N.R., Karpenko S.F., Galimzyanov K.M., Kasimova N.B., Rubalsky O.V., Vishnevetskaya I.F., Mikhailovskaya T.I., Abdrakhmanova N.R.


The paper presents the results of a clinical observation and complex examination of 48 patients with Q-fever, the blood samples from 20 of them were tested for lysozyme, complement, and circulating immune complexes (CIC). The swing of the disease was characterized by the maximum clinical manifestations of the disease. Early reconvalescence was marked by a decrement in the clinical symptoms of the disease and a gradual recovery of the body's impaired functions. The study indicated a relationship between the level of nonspecific resistance factors and the stage of the pathologic process. The swing of the disease showed an increase in the amount of CIC with lower complement activity and normal lysozyme levels. In early reconvalescence, there was an increase in the levels of CIC and a decrease in total complementary activity as compared with those in the previous period. At the same time blood lysozyme activity substantially increased and exceeded the control values.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):38-42
pages 38-42 views

Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis during antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C

Gromova N.I., Lopatkina T.N., Gromova N.I., Lopatkina T.N.


The spectrum of adverse reactions caused by combined interferon therapy includes the development of autoimmune diseases, including sarcoidosis. Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis is its rare form. The paper describes a case of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis in a young woman at 28 weeks of combined interferon therapy for chronic hepatitis C 1b genotype. Corticosteroid therapy led to remission with the retention of a sustained virological response to antiviral therapy.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):42-44
pages 42-44 views

Evaluation of the virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated in Russia and contiguous states

Shalu O.A., Golenishcheva E.N., Smolikova L.M., Gal'tseva G.V., Bozhko N.V., Monakhova E.V., Shalu O.A., Golenishcheva Y.N., Smolikova L.M., Galtseva G.V., Bozhko N.V., Monakhova Y.V.


One hundred and ninety-six Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains that are etiological agents causing outbreaks and sporadic cases of food toxicoinfections and isolated from the environments of Russia, Ukraine, and Turkmenia are characterized by virulence-associated phenotypic and genotypic signs. Most clinical strains were found to contain the genes of the major pathogenicity factors - thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH); however, a large number of pathogens lack these genes. In all likelihood, these strains can cause human diseases, by producing other toxic substances. The presence of the trh gene correlated with that and expression of the urease genes. Comparative analysis of the findings has demonstrated that the results of polymerase chain reaction detection of the tdh gene do not always agree with the signs of hemolytic activity on the Wagatsum medium (Kanagawa phenomenon). Therefore, both tests that complement each other are recommended for a fuller evaluation of the potential danger of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):45-48
pages 45-48 views

Clinical laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia-induced arthropathies

Lobzin Y.V., Sidorchuk S.N., Poznyak A.L., Lobzin Y.V., Sidorchuk S.N., Poznyak A.L.


Chlamydia-induced reactive arthropathy is one of the common urogenital chlamydial infections. The urgency of the problem is associated with diagnostic difficulties, which is due to its unnoticeable clinical course, lesions of many organs and systems, and inadequate patient management. The lecture covers the current terminology and classification of Chlamydia-induced joint damage. Chlamydia-induced arthropathies are defined; its clinical forms are identified. Lesions of the locomotor apparatus, urogenital system, eyes, and skin, and systemic manifestations are characterized in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected patients. Used laboratory studies, clinical diagnostic informative criteria, and a differential diagnostic algorithm for arthropathies are discussed.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):48-51
pages 48-51 views

Epidemiology of bacterial purulent meningitis in children: Saint Petersburg experience

Vil'nits A.A., Ivanova M.V., Vilnits A.A., Ivanova M.V.


The paper presents the experience in managing children with bacterial meningitis at the Department of Neuroinfections, Research Institute of Childhood Infections, Federal Biomedical Agency of Russia. It comprehensively characterizes the specific features of the clinical picture, premorbid background and outcomes of bacterial meningococcal, pneumococcal, and Hemophilus influenzae type b meningitides. New possibilities of primary prevention of pneumococcal meningitis, by using the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, are described.
Epidemiology and Infectious Diseases. 2010;15(6):52-54
pages 52-54 views
pages 61-62 views

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