An emergent approach to the formation of a strategy for anti-epidemic preparedness of healthcare organizations in the context of a new epidemiological reality

Cover Page

Cite item

Full Text

Open Access Open Access
Restricted Access Access granted
Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access


The review presents factual data, unguarded digital and qualitative information on cases of infectious diseases and outbreaks of current infections during the COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. Sources of information: materials of the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control (USA, European countries), the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Protection and Human Well-Being, conferences and scientific reports, etc.

The review deals with the problem of a new epidemiological reality as a complex, complex, open system with the emergence property inherent in such systems ― the emergence of new phenomena that are not equal to the effects of a simple sum of epidemic processes or their driving forces. Unpredictability of the new epidemiological reality ― from a rapid increase in morbidity to reverse development (and vice versa) when integrating new elements (biological, social, technological) into it, it is largely due to the effects of co-identity (mutual influence of sudden phenomena), which requires an in-depth study of the processes occurring at different hierarchical levels of this system for the successful relief of epidemic complications. To conduct research at the level of the infectious process, it is proposed to create a federal specialized scientific and practical clinical medical center with educational and training modules. The scientific research of the center will focus on the study of the characteristic “systemic qualities” of the infectious process based on knowledge about the properties and relationships between the elements of the system; between the system and the objects of its environment; on diagnosis (including cases of coinfections, superinfections) and identification of modifying and limiting factors in the pathogenetic and clinical manifestation of diseases. The training modules of the center will provide modern opportunities for the training of various professional groups of medical and non-medical specialists (device designers and designers of medical equipment, employees of engineering and operational services of medical institutions) on working under strict anti-epidemic regime, as well as on design tasks, technological preparation for operation and refinement of new models of equipment, means personal protection, consumables.

Thus, a specialized scientific and practical clinical medical center with educational and training modules will become a platform at which, through intersectoral cooperation and interaction, an emergent approach to the formation of an anti-epidemic preparedness strategy of medical organizations will be implemented ― detecting changes in the clinical manifestations of infectious diseases and responding appropriately to future sudden external epidemic challenges.

Full Text

Restricted Access

About the authors

Galina D. Bryukhanova

Kuban State Medical University; Sochi State University

ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7567-7532
SPIN-code: 1553-4061

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.)

Russian Federation, Krasnodar; 94, Plastunskaya street, Sochi, 354000

Vladimir N. Gorodin

Kuban State Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3062-7595
SPIN-code: 3664-7790


Russian Federation, Krasnodar

Dmitry V. Nosikov

Kuban State Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1112-1687
SPIN-code: 8094-7293
Russian Federation, Krasnodar

Irina V. Shestakova

Kuban State Medical University

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8516-9088
SPIN-code: 6081-7764

MD, Dr. Sci. (Med.), Professor

Russian Federation, Krasnodar

Andrey V. Nezhurin

Kuban State Medical University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3138-8023
Russian Federation, Krasnodar


  1. Lewis HC, Ware H, Whelan M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of standardised seroprevalence studies, from January 2020 to December 2021. medRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2022.02.14.22270934
  2. Nachega JB, Sam-Agudu NA, Machekano RN, et al. Assessment of clinical outcomes among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 in 6 sub-saharan African Countries. JAMA Pediatr. 2022;176(3):e216436. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.6436
  3. Chen J, Lu H. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease. Biosci Trends. 2016;10(2):158–162. doi: 10.5582/bst.2016.01051
  4. Ling Y, Chen J, Huang Q, et al. Yellow fever in a worker returning to China from Angola, March 2016. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(7): 1317–1318. doi: 10.3201/eid2207.160469
  5. Simpson K, Heymann D, Brown CS, et al. Human monkeypox ― After 40 years, an unintended consequence of smallpox eradication. Vaccine. 2020;38(33):5077–5081. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.04.062
  6. Basov AA, Tsvirkun OV, Gerasimova AG, Zekoreev AH. The problem of whooping cough in some regions of the world. Inf Immunity. 2019;9(2):354–362. (In Russ). doi: 10.15789/2220-7619-2019-2-354-362
  7. Mulholland K, Kretsinger K, Wondwossen L, Crowcroft N. Action needed now to prevent further increases in measles and measles deaths in the coming years. Lancet. 2020;396(10265):1782–1784. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32394-1
  8. Gee JE, Bower WA, Kunkel A, et al. Multistate outbreak of melioidosis associated with imported aromatherapy spray. New Eng J Med. 2022;386(9):861–868. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2116130
  9. Maleev VV. Some aspects of the evolution of infectious pathology at the present stage. Kuban Sci Med Bulletin. 2020;27(4):18–26. (In Russ). doi: 10.25207/1608-6228-2020-27-4-18-26
  10. Boots M, Sasaki A. Small worlds and the evolution of virulence: infection occurs locally and at a distance. Proc Biol Sci. 1999;266(1432):1933–1938. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1999.0869
  11. Levin BR, Lipsitch M, Bonhoeffer S. Population biology, evolution, and infectious disease; convergence and synthesis. Science. 1999;283(5403):806–809. doi: 10.1126/science.283.5403.806
  12. Caraco T, Glavanakov S, Li S, et al. Spatially structured superinfection and the evolution of disease virulence. Theor Popul Biol. 2006;69(4):367–384. doi: 10.1016/j.tpb.2005.12.004
  13. Varki A. Nothing in medicine makes sense, except in the light of evolution. J Mol Med (Berl). 2012;90(5):481–494. doi: 10.1007/s00109-012-0900-5
  14. Leventhal GE, Hill AL, Nowak MA, Bonhoeffer S. Evolution and emergence of infectious diseases in theoretical and real-world networks. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6101. doi: 10.1038/ncomms7101
  15. Onishchenko GG, Smolensky VY, Yezhova EB, et al. Conceptual foundations of biological safety. Part I. Bulletin Russ Academy Sci. 2013;68(10):4–12. (In Russ). doi: 10.15690/vramn.v68i10.781
  16. Antipov AB, Antipov VB, Kovtun VA. The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a threat to the security of the State. Biological weapons. Military Thought. 2018;(9):1–11. (In Russ).
  17. Abugalieva ZG, Iskakova FA, Begimbaeva EZ, Utesheva GS. Issues of biological safety and biosecurity in the same conditions. Bulletin of the Kazakh National Medical University. 2020;(2-1):3 92–396. (In Russ).
  18. Udovichenko SK, Toporkov VP. On epidemiological risks, their constituent categories and predictors in the event of emergency situations of a sanitary-epidemiological (biological) nature. Health Risk Analysis. 2020;(1):83–91. (In Russ). doi: 10.21668/health.risk/2020.1.09
  19. Holopova EN, Masal’skaya VO. Biological weapons as a threat to Russia’s national security. Rule Law Theory Practice. 2020;(2): 112–122. (In Russ). doi: 10.33184/pravgos-2020.2.10
  20. Atlas RM, Dando M. The dual-use dilemma for the life sciences: perspectives, conundrums, and global solutions. Biosecur Bioterror. 2006;4(3):276–286. doi: 10.1089/bsp.2006.4.276
  21. Gerstein D, Giordano J. Rethinking the biological and toxin weapons convention? Health Secur. 2017;15(6):638–641. doi: 10.1089/hs.2017.0082
  22. Bakanidze L, Perkins PD. Biosafety and biosecurity as essential pillars of international health security and cross-cutting elements of biological nonproliferation. BMC Public Health. 2010;10(Suppl 1):S12. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-S1-S12
  23. Viktorov AG. Genetic methods of pest control. History and current state. Russ J Biol Invasions. 2021;(1):51–62. doi: 10.35885/1996-1499-2021-14-1-51-63
  24. Waltz E. First genetically modified mosquitoes released in the United States. Nature. 2021;593(7858):175–176. doi: 10.1038/d41586-021-01186-6
  25. Evans BR, Kotsakiozi P, Costa-da-Silva AL, et al. Transgenic aedes aegypti mosquitoes transfer genes into a natural population. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):13047. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-49660-6
  26. Bull JJ, Smithson MW, Nuismer SL..Transmissible viral vaccines. Trends Microbiology. 2018;26(1):6–15. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.007
  27. Varrelman TJ, Remien CH, Basinski AJ, et al. Quantifying the effectiveness of betaherpesvirus-vectored transmissible vaccines. Proceedings Nat Academy Sci (PNAS). 2022;119(4):e2108610119. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2108610119
  28. Bannister B, Puro V, Fusco FM, et al. Framework for the design and operation of high-level isolation units: consensus of the European Network of Infectious Diseases. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2009;9(1):45–56. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(08)70304-9
  29. Cherkassky BL. Global epidemiology. Moscow: Practical Medicine; 2008. 447 р. (In Russ).
  30. Hadarcev AA. On emergence in living systems and Wheeler’s ideas (review of scientific literature). Bulletin New Med Technol. 2019;(1):129–132. (In Russ). doi: 10.24411/1609-2163-2019-16
  31. Morse S. Factors in the emergence of infectious disease. Emerging Inf Dis. 1995;1(1):7–15. doi: 10.3201/eid0101.950102
  32. Кnyazeva H. Strategies of dynamic complexity management. Foresight STI Governance. 2020;14(4):34–45. doi: 10.17323/2500-2597.2020.4.34.45
  33. Makmillan CH. Japanese industrial system. Moscow: Progress; 1988. 398 р. (In Russ).

Supplementary files

There are no supplementary files to display.

Copyright (c) 2022 Eco-vector

СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: 014448 от 08.02.1996
СМИ зарегистрировано Федеральной службой по надзору в сфере связи, информационных технологий и массовых коммуникаций (Роскомнадзор).
Регистрационный номер и дата принятия решения о регистрации СМИ: серия ЭЛ № ФС 77 - 80652 от 15.03.2021

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies